In modern times, IMAI Soukyuu is probably most famous for being a student of TAKENO Jouou, but the answer to where he was getting all this money to build tea houses and purchase utensils is… he was an arms dealer. That is, he was a merchant whose main product was the newly introduced rifle and other firearms. That’s how he and Nobunaga got to know each other. In any case, Sokyu was a savvy guy whether predicting new technology on the market or manipulate the social order through pastimes like tea.

Here Sokyu sitting in seiza, making tea with the ro hearth. Remember, using the ro like this is a new development in this time period. Also, check out his awesome mizusashi.

Remember, of course, you can click on the picture to make it giant

Remember, of course, you can click on the picture to make it giant

I couldn’t captured it with screenshots, but the way in which Soukyuu moved was very different from how I have been taught. Much more forceful and with a more varied rhythm. His chasen toshi reminded me a bit of how omotesenke does so though. As an aside, yesterday evening I was chatting with a woman who studies a branch of Enshuu tea. She mentioned that because it is a man’s style, the fukusa is worn on the right side. It is interesting to remember that my own school (Urasenke) became popular mainly as bridal training for young women. I love my own school, but I would like to learn more about the other styles as well.

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Soukyuu making tea.

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And here you can see the tea room with its tokonoma. Note the earthy tones, and the particular style of coats these merchants are wearing.

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Here is the bowl used. It’s a korai seji chawan (Korean celedon bowl). It has lost its popularity in modern times, but I am quite a fan of celedon. In fact, the first bowl I ever bought was celedon.

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Finally here are the two guests. I am forgetting the name of the first guest, but the second guest is HIBIYA Ryougo (Ryoukei) [In kanji⇒日比屋・了珪(慶)]. You might be able to tell from the cross around his neck, that he is a Christian. The three of them are discussing the possibility of war between Sakai and the armies of Nobunaga.

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The Christianity of this era in Japan is extremely beautiful, simple on the exterior, but deep and full of faith and feeling. While there is little historical record remaining from this time, its nice to be able to see its depiction in drama. It makes me want to learn Portuguese.

戦国Mass

SeizaSesshaMany people have difficulty sitting in seiza. While I have hesitated to boldly state my own ignorant opinion on the matter, I have decided to do so with this post. So this is not a translation, but just my own insignificant thoughts.

Seiza and Japanese culture are inseparably intertwined. There are tea procedures that have been created to avoid seiza: The Victorian-flavoured ryuurei style uses specially made tables and chairs affordable to only independently wealthy aristocrats, but lacks the intimacy that is in the heart of tea ceremony. Zarei is a newer temae that is more intimate and allows the host and guests to sit in seiza, agura (cross-legged), or on a small stool as they please. However, it still requires a special tana (tea stand) that has a very good price. By good, I mean expensive. But even with such temae, being able to sit in seiza is an indispensable part of learning Tea! Having been praised by my (Japanese) classmates for being able to sit in seiza for a long time, I hope my limited experience can give my dear readers some good advice.

As an aside, I started sitting in seiza after I became an adult. When I first started, it was not easy. My feet immediately fell asleep to the point I could not stand again. So seiza is a skill, not nothing some people are just naturally good at.

How I learned to sit in seiza:

Practice
When I first started sitting in seiza, I made a deliberate effort to sit in seiza at home, while reading or watching a movie or surfing the internet. I usually did this sitting on my bed, mostly because I lived in a very small room and there was no room to sit elsewhere. Now that I live in Japan, I live a rather “Japanese-style” life, meaning without high tables or chairs. I sit on tatami mat floor when using my computer, when reading, when eating…pretty much all the time. About half of this time, I am sitting in seiza. The other half of the time I sit in agura or tate-hiza (with one knee up). At work, I have a western-style desk and chair, but sometimes I will tuck my legs up in seiza on the chair, because I find that more comfortable nowadays.
As for where you should practice, I personally recommend, of course, tatami (real tatami is softer than foam-core tatami btw), but also other soft surfaces such as a zabuton (cushion), bed mattress, or even carpet. To sit comfortably in seiza, your body should slightly adjust its shape, so practicing while taking a hot bath helps this.

Don’t Sit Still
I can sit comfortably in seiza for hours, but my feet do still fall asleep. To help this, I am constantly moving my feet and weight*. Obviously, I can’t be fidgeting through an entire tea ceremony, but I can wiggle my toes or switch the position of my big toes. If my feet have fallen asleep and I know I will need to stand up soon, I start waking them up by wiggling them about five minutes before. The process of waking my feet up is a little painful, but it means that at least I can exit the room gracefully, rather than falling over when trying to stand on numb feet. I should also mention we sort of shuffle rather than pick up our feet when walking in a tea room. When your feet are in that painful half-asleep condition, this is a great blessing.
By the way, there are many opportunities to encourage sluggish circulation back into your feet. When you bow, fetch utensils, do haiken, and reach for the tana or kettle, these all allow you to move your body and take weight off if your feet.

*Nota bene: At one point I did field work at a Russian Orthodox church. Orthodox churches traditionally do not have pews, so this often included standing as an observer in a formal position for three hour long services. But for participants, this standing is broken every five or ten minutes by bows or even prostrations upon the floor. Standing in the same position was painful, but when interspersed with bows and other movement, it wasn’t so difficult at all. I think seiza is similar to this.

Exercise
I think it was Shigenori Chikamatsu who said that if you are healthy and have good circulation, you should have no problem with seiza. If you consider the sort of people who practiced tea when these forms were established, they had much more active lifestyles. I despise sports and can’t recommend anyone taking them up. But instead, take up another hobby that is more useful. Start a garden, try tai chi, take up charcoal making, or go on nature hikes on the weekend. I myself practice kyudo (Japanese archery) whose focus on “still activity” and etiquette has much in common with Tea.
By the way, when sitting in seiza, I am under the impression we shouldn’t sit all relaxed with all our weight on our feet. Keeping your posture straight and the muscles in your legs active helps prevent the feet from falling asleep too.

Dress “Comfortably”
I find wearing pants makes my feet fall asleep very quickly. If I am wearing kimono, I also try to be careful about not tying it too tight. I think that people, if they are not used to wearing kimono, tend to wrap and tie the kimono very tightly around the body. But there is no need for that and having the kimono bound around the thighs too tightly makes sitting in seiza more difficult.
I’ve also had recommended to me that I leave the upper most clasp of my tabi undone.

The above is just my opinion and based upon my experience, so while I hope it can give some good advice, only use what you find works well and experiment for yourself.

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Here is a screenshot taken from the classic Japanese drama Kodzure Ohkami (Lone Wolf and Cub). Ohgami Itto, an assassin is receiving tea made by a daimyo client while discussing details of the assignment.

Despite the unbelievable martial abilities of the protagonist, the calm, selfless resolve with which he walks along the “path along the edge of hell” (meifudou), makes the story enthralling and deeply moving.

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This screenshot is from another episode. Ohgami’s rival, Yagyuu Retsudou, is making tea for himself while thinking over how he might turn around his badly-going feud with Ohgami.

"Kyougoku" or The Highest Capital at the Tokugawa Museum of Art.

“Kyougoku” or The Highest Capital. At the Tokugawa Museum of Art.

Kaki no Heta (Persimmon Calyx) is a type of Korean tea bowl fired during the Early Joseon Dynasty.

The name “Persimmon Calyx” comes from how the colour and shape of the tea bowls resemble the calyx of persimmons.

A thin glaze is laid over the body that is made of a clay full of iron and mixed with sand. The dark brown colour of the glaze gives the bowl an earthy sheen. While the bowl is fairly thick, it is light to handle and has a feeling of somber refinement.

As for the shape, the mouth of the bowl has line, called a toikuchi, cut around it with a spatula . The hips of the bowl are stepped, and the bust of the bowl is wide. It’s tall foot is called a bachi-koudai and the inside of the foot is shaved in a circle. It is considered a type of Totoya tea bowl.

Famous Kaki-no-heta bowls include Kyougoku at Tokugawa Museum, Bishamon-dou at Hatakeyama Memorial Museum, and Ootsu at Fujita Museum.

usedteabowlToday, I did a tea demonstration at a junior high school. The school had no tatami mat room, so we used three rolling platforms set up in the first years classroom. One of the teachers brought in a display of sumi-e that the students had done to hang up in the background.

The theme of the demonstration was international cultural exchange, so I begin with talking to the students about how it was important to know your own culture, so then you will be able to share it with others who are interested. I also explained how Japanese culture has gained some popularity overseas and how the Daisosho and Oiemoto of Urasenke want to use to tea to spread understanding and peace throughout the world.

Next, I performed ryakubon temae. During this time the students just sat and watched, although I had one of the drink the tea I made. When speaking, I used only English, and asked the students to try to see what words they can hear. Personally, if you want to seriously study, it is important to learn Japanese. Even when I first started learning tea and didn’t speak a word of Japanese, I struggled and remembered phrases like “Osaki ni”, and “Otemae chodai itashimasu”. However, learning a foreign langauge is a rather high barrier, so for those studying tea casually, or for those who are just participating as a guest, we should use English, and make it easy to understand. Plus this demonstration was technically an English class.

After watching my temae, the students made pairs. I brought a bowl, chashaku, chasen, and chakin for each pair and kaishi for each student. Using the hot water from my tetsubin and from an electric kettle, they each served a sweet and made tea for each other.

Teabowls for the students to make tea for each other

Teabowls for the students to make tea for each other

The students all enjoyed the sweets. With the poetic name of “Uchimizu” (Scattered Water), I ordered them from a local sweetmaker called Rokkou.

Uchimizu sweets

Uchimizu sweets

Most of them like the matcha too. One of the students used four or five spoonfuls worth of tea in making tea for his partner, which was a little bitter, but over all it was great fun. At the end, the students were also able to make tea for the teachers there. Along with the teachers was one boy of about 6 years of age. His teacher told him the tea was “Karli Soup” (that’s my name), which was incredibly adorable. He drank up all his tea and said afterwards it was delicious. At then end, we had about 15 minutes left of the two hours scheduled for the demonstration, so the students helped wash the bowls, and straighten up.

After the demonstration, the students had school lunch. While originally I hadn’t intended to eat lunch with them, I was able to. School lunch was udon soup, which even when eaten with the utmost care tends to splatter. The science teacher recommended I wear one of the lab coats over my kimono. To my surprise, rather than being at awkward, it worked nicely!

The lab coat fits so nicely over the kimono

The lab coat fits so nicely over the kimono

It was a really wonderful experience, for both me and the students. It certainly wasn’t perfect. The utensils I possess are limited. I don’t have a furosaki and the only kettle I have is the tetsubin. We used a carpeted platform instead of proper tatami. But I feel that although the setting and materials might not be perfect, if you have an earnest love of tea and desire to share and create friendship in the world, you can truthfully communicate tea ceremony.

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And a random kimono anecdote
One of my coworkers today joked he didn’t want to be in a picture with me in kimono. The reason was he wasn’t wearing a suit, only a polo shirt, and the formality of clothing would just be too unbalanced. Even worse, the polo shirt was from Uniqlo (a cheap clothing brand). If you are going to wear a polo shirt next to a kimono, it should at least be by Ralph Lauren.

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Nakabushi and Tenbushi Futaoki. Also, the hishaku’s gou is 1 sun 9 bu to 2 sun large with the ro and 1 sun 7 bu to 8 bu large with the furo

This month’s Tankou had an article talking about the differences between Furo and Ro. While the things it mentions are fairly basic, I think it is easy to get them mixed up, especially if you haven’t studied tea that long. Two differences that I forget/mix up still are shifting towards the kensui when retreating from the tea room, and the position of pointer finger when holding the hishaku. What other differences are there between furo and ro?

The Difference in Utensils Between Furo and Ro
A bamboo futaoki is generally used for hakobi temae, and the position of the bamboo joint differs from furo to ro. In furo, it is a “tenbushi” (the joint is towards to top) and in ro, it is a “nakabushi” (the joint is around the middle). There are also special futaoki with two or more joints. There is an anecdote which says that Rikyuu told his sons Douan and Shouan to make a futaoki. One of them made a “tenbushi” one and other made a “nakabushi” one. Both of them being beautiful so hating to discard either one, Rikyuu Koji designated them for different using depending on the furo or ro, it is said.

The size of the gou of the hishaku (the cup) also differs. On a whole, the gou used with the furo is smaller. However, if a hanging kettle or a tsutsugama is used with the ro, a smaller hishaku can be used along with it. The difference of the hishaku is not limited to just the size of the gou. The kiridome (end) of the hishaku handle also differs. In order that the front side of the handle is longer for the furo and shorter for the ro, the end of the hishaku is cut diagonally. The reason for this difference is because way the hishaku is placed is different: For the furo it is placed face up and for the ro is it placed face down.
There is a famous poem that can be used to remembering this:

風そよぐならの小川の夕暮れは禊祓ぞ夏の印なりける
At dusk a gentle breeze blows along the streams of Nara
The only sign of summer is the misogi purification

“禊祓ぞ夏の印” (written with different kanji) can also mean “a sign of summer is the handle cut towards you”.
Translator note!–> The above poem is the 98th poem in the famed collection called “Ogura Hyakunin Shu”

Question: What sort of different utensils are used depending of the furo or ro?

Answer: The furo starts in May when we welcome the hot weather, so we use many dogu that express cool and freshness. The charcoal is shorter and thinner compared to the ro, and since less of it is used, the charcoal utensils are smaller. The kettle becomes smaller and the furo is placed in the corner of the room in order that the guests don’t feel as hot. In reverse, in order to help the guests feel cool, utensils relating to water become larger. For example, as the height of summer is neared, the large “hira-mizusashi” is used. Just viewing it, the guests will be able to feel refreshed. And in the tokonoma a basket vase is used.

A Word from the Teacher
What other differences are there between furo and ro? Let’s take a look at Rikyu’s 100 Proverbs.

風炉の時炭は菜籠にかね火箸ぬり香合に白檀をたけ
“With the furo, the charcoal in a vegetable basket, metal hibashi, a lacquered kougou, and burn sandalwood”
炉のうちは炭斗瓢柄の火箸陶器香合練香としれ
“With the ro, know to use a gourd sumitori, handled hibashi, ceramic kougou, and blended incense”

These teaches us that a woven sumitori, metal hibashi, a lacquered kougou, and wood incense is used with the furo. A dried and hollowed-out goard for sumitori, hibashi with wrapped handles, and ceramic kougou and blended incense is used with the ro. The ro sumitori is not limited to gourds, and baskets can be used too, but when first opening the ro, everybody knows to use a new gourd sumitori.

DSCN4699There is also the poem:

羽箒は風炉に右羽よ炉のときは左羽をば使うとぞしる
“The furo habouki is a right feather and a ro habouki is a left feather, of course!”

Whether the right side of the habouki feather is wider or the left side changes whether using it with a ro or furo. However, as you progress in your studies, you will find this is not always true such as in a gyakute room.

教えて先生!習いに役立つ
初心者のための基磨?講座(十八回)
「風炉」と「炉」の道具の違い
竹の蓋置は主に運びの点前で使用し、節の位置により風炉用と炉用の区別をします。風炉は天節(節が上部にある)、炉は中節(節が中ほどにある)です。特殊なものとして、二つ以上の節を含むものもあります。
逸話によると、利休居士が息子の道安と少庵に竹で蓋置を切るようにと命じたところ、一人は天節を、一人は中節を製作しました。その美的感覚は双方とも捨てがたいと思った利休居士が風炉用と炉用にと使い分けたと伝えられています。

柄杓は合(湯が入る部分)の大きさに違いがあり、一般的には風炉の方が小さくなっています。但し、炉でも釣釜などで筒釜などの小ぶりな釜を使用する時には合の小さい柄杓を合わせる場合もまります。
柄杓の違いは合の大きさだけではなく、柄の「切止」にも違いがあります。風炉の柄杓は皮目の方が長くなるように、炉の柄杓は皮目の方が短くなるように斜めにそぎ切りしてまります。これは釜の上に柄杓を置く向きが、風炉は仰向け、炉では伏せて置くことからの違いです。
覚える際には有名な和歌『風そよぐならの小川の夕暮れは禊祓ぞ夏の印なりける』の一部分をひいて「禊祓(身そぎ)ぞ夏(風炉の季節)の印なりける」と覚えると良いでしょう。

Q:風炉と炉における道具の違いとはどうんなものになるのですか。
A:風炉は、五月の初風炉から始まり、暑い季節に向かっていますので、爽やかさや涼しさを表現する道具が多くなります。炭の寸法や太さは、炉のそれと比べて短く細くなり、本数も少なくなりますので、まずは炭道具が小さくなります。釜も小ぶりになり、風炉は席中の隅に設置されますので、お客様に暑さを感じさせないように工夫されています。
それとは逆に、涼しさを感じさせる「水」に関係する道具が大ぶりになります。例えば、盛夏に近づくと水指は大きな平水指を用意し、お客様に目で見た目の涼しさを演出しますし、床の間には籠花入を使用します。

先生からのひとこと
風炉と炉とでは他にどのような違いがあるのでしょうか。まずは利休百首の歌を引いてみましょう。
風炉の時炭は菜籠にかね火箸ぬり香合に白檀をたけ
炉のうちは炭斗瓢柄の火箸陶器香合練香としれ
とあります。風炉の炭斗は籠製のもの、金属製の火箸、塗の香合、香木。炉は瓢の中身をくり抜いて乾燥させた炭斗、持ち手に柄の着いた火箸、陶器の香合に練香を入れて使用するという教えです。炉の炭斗は瓢に限らず籠も使用しますが、開炉に新瓢の炭斗を使用することはろく知られています。
羽箒は風炉に右羽よ炉のときは
左羽をば使うとぞしる
ともあり、羽箒は羽の右側が広いか、左側が広いかで、風炉用と炉用が変わります。但し、お稽古が進み逆手などの点前になりますとその限りではありません。

炉用(中節)、風炉用(天節)、炉用合が大きめ(一寸九分~二寸)、風炉用合が小さめ(一寸七分半~八分半)

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菓子:引千切(ひちぎり)
Sweet: Hichigiri (Pulled and Shredded)
干菓子:貝尽し
Dry Sweets: Shell Assortment
器:時代蒔絵 行器(ほかい)
Dish: Antique Makied Picnic Basket

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花:桃 菜の花
Flower: Peach, Reip Blossom
花入:青磁尊式瓶
Vase: Zun-style Celedon Vase