茶の湯と陰陽五行


KoSetou Taikai ChaireOld Seto-ware Ocean Tea Caddy,
Named “Sekki (Year’s End)”
Nedzu Art Musuem Collection

Due to it’s rather large size, this taikai chaire with a large mouth is low, round, and flat like a koshiki basket. The name comes from comparing the width of the mouth to that of the ocean. A black glaze is mixed with a persimmon colour streaked with a purple tint, and in places it has a tortoiseshell colour glaze. Upon the box lid is written the poetic name “Sekki”, which means the year grows late.

古瀬戸大海茶入 銘節季 根津美術館蔵
大海茶入は大振りで、口が広く、甑の低い平丸形のものをいう。口の広いところから海にたとえてこの名がある。紫みを帯びた柿色に黒釉がまじり、ところどころべっこう色の釉がかけられている。箱蓋表に年の暮れを意味する銘「節季」が書かれているという。

Sanzaru Futaoki

Koushin-machi
An event called Koushin-Machi or Koushin-Kou–when on the day of koushin ([also pronounced] kanoe saru), the three insects called joushi, chuushi, and geshi that live in the body are said to report to Heaven one’s crimes–became popular. It is believed one can preserve one’s long life span by gathering together on the day of koushin and worshiping Shoumen Kongou by reading scriptures, chatting, and eating until daybreak.

Gengensai Favoured Sanzaru Futaoki, Made by Keiju
Gengensai stated this preference in the first year of Man’en (1860), which was the year of Koushin. It is a lid rest modeled after the three “see no evil, speak no evil, hear no evil” monkeys. The three monkeys are messengers of the principle deity of Koushin-machi, Shoumen Kongou.

Nota Bene: Koushin is just a date, using the sexagenary cycle that was common back in day. It was used for both years and days. The kou (kanoe) is the heavenly stem associated with yang metal, and the shin (saru) is the earthly stem associated with the zodiacal monkey and late afternoon.

庚申待ち
庚申(かのえさる)の日には体中に住む上尸・中尸・下尸という虫が天上界にその罪状を報告するといわれ、「庚申待ち」また「庚申講」が広まった。庚申の日に寄り合い、青面金剛などを本尊として、読経、歓談、飲食を夜明けまで行うことで、命を長らえることができると信じられていた。

玄々斎好 三猿蓋置 慶入作
万延元年(1860)の庚申年に好まれた、不見・不言・不聞の三猿をかたどった蓋置。三猿は庚申待ちの本尊、青面金剛のお使いといわれる。

Kanreki Fukusa and Crimson Thread Chasen
With Mount Hourai (Penglai) and the character for “longevity” drawn on it, this was the fukusa for the occassion of Tantansai Soushou’s 60th birthday. The tray is the Chitose-bon, which Kayoko-in created for Tantansai Soushou’s 60th birthday. The benio chasen, which is bound with crimson thread, was favoured by Gengensai and isn’t used except for 60th birthday tea parties.

*Translater note: The 60th birthday is called “kanreki” and is easily distinguished by the birthday boy in question wearing particular crimson (beni) garments. Having survived all 60 years of the sexagenary calendar is a cause for celebration. Red is worn because the start of the next sexagenary cycle is considered like a small beginning of a life again, thus just like little babies are wrapped in red, so is the birthday boy.

還暦帛紗と紅緒茶筅
蓬萊山と「寿」の字を書かれた、淡淡斎宗匠の還暦に際しての帛紗。盆は清香院が、淡淡斎宗匠の還暦を記念して好まれた千歳盆。かがり糸を紅糸で結んだ紅緒茶筅は、玄玄斎好で、還暦の茶以外には用いないとされる。

An example of the delicious diagrams to which the Namporoku treats us .

The Namboroku and the Theory of Yin-Yang and the Five Elements
by Tanibata Teruo

Compiled by Tachibana Jitsuzan, a retainer in service of the Kuroda Clan of Fukuoka Domain. Completed in the third year of Genroku (1690). It is a work which passes down the spirituality of Rikyu’s chanoyu. It consists of seven books. The first, “Memoranda”, recalls the tea talk, words, and deeds of Rikyu. The second, “Parties”, records about 100 tea parties Rikyu was a part of. The third, “Shelfs”, describes the method of displaying utensils and using shelfs such as the fukuro-dana and the rikyu-tansu. The fourth, “Writing Parlor”, diagrams the method of displaying things in a writing parlor. The fifth, “Daisu”, collects methods for displaying on the daisu. The sixth, “Crossed Out”, explains the secrets of kanewari. The seventh, “Posthumous”, supplements the main work. It was written by Nanpou Soukei, Rikyu’s leading student at Shuuun-an, a sub-temple of Nanshuu-ji in Sakai and completed when Rikyuu added his seal of approval.
That the theory of yin-yang/five elements, as well as zen spirituality, penetrated Rikyu’s chanoyu is written in the preamble. The connection of yin-yang/five elements and tea is considered in the distinction between yin and yang. (For example, it talks about)the quality of the fire during a chaji, about how shoza is yin and goza is yang, and about how the utensils are arranged in the tea room in a pattern of “one even, two odd” “two odd, one even”.
Furthermore, it considers the singular “kanewari”. The daisu or the tea room are divided into yin and yang. In a kyoma-sized room, the utensils are conveniently divided into five, and 5 yang and 6 yin thus 11 kane lines are assumed. It considers how it affects the number of tea utensils placed on lines and the movement of the utensils during the temae.
For long a secret tome, passed down to only certain few chajin, and exhibited rarely, it was first openly published in the Meiji period. The complete opening of the content has many points where people disagree in their arguments, but as little as this may be, to say the Nampouroku passes down one face of Rikyu’s chanoyu is no mistake.

Random fact: It seems the name of the Namboroku, or in English “The Southern Record”, comes the first line of the Chajing: 茶者,南方之嘉木也” or “Tea is an esteemed plant from the South (nambou).” I hadn’t realized that.

『南方録』と陰陽五行
谷端昭夫
福岡黒田藩の家臣・立花実山の編著。元禄三年(一六九〇)ころ成立。利休の茶の湯の精神を伝えるとされる書。全七巻からなり、第一巻きは利休の茶話や言動をしるした「覚書」、第二巻きはおよそ百会に及ぶ利休の茶会を収録した「会」、三巻は袋棚や利休桐箪笥などの飾や点茶法について述べる「棚」、第四巻は書院飾の図説としての「書院」、第五巻は台子飾の切紙をまとめた「台子」、第六巻は曲尺割りの秘事を述べた「墨引」、第七巻は全体を補足する「滅後」からなっている。利休の高弟で堺南宗寺の塔頭集雲庵の南坊宗啓が筆録し、これに利休が証文を加えた形で成立している。
陰陽・五行思想、禅の精神などが利休の茶の湯に貫通していることを前提に著述されるが、陰陽・五行と茶の湯の関係については、茶事を火相の関係から初座を「陰」、後座を「陽」としたり、茶室における道具の配置を「一調二半」「二半一調」など陰陽に分割して考えている。
さらに特異なのは「曲尺割り」であろう。台子や茶室の畳を分割して陰陽に分ける考え方で、京間とその道具を便宜上五分割して、五陽六陰・十一の曲尺を想定し、その線上に茶道具類を置き、点前中の茶道具の移動もこれに拠って考えている。この曲尺にあわない道具や所作を不可とするなど、独自の視点をもっている。
ながく秘伝書とされ、ごく一部の茶人の間に伝えられ、公開されることは稀であったが明治にいたって初めて公刊されることになった。その内容から、成立に開しては議論の分かれるところであるが、少なくとも利休の茶の湯のもつ一面を伝えていることは間違いなかろう。

A different Yuteki Tenmoku Chawan, whose image I stole from the internets. (Specifically, this is a national treasure made in the 12th or 13th century)

Yuteki Tenmoku Chawan (Hoshi Kensan)
From the Collection of the Tokugawa Art Museum

The name “Hoshi Kensan (Star of Fujian)” was passed down from old by the House of Tokugawa of Bishuu. A ring (fukurin) of sahari copper along with a complicated pattern of variously sized oil drops surround the rim, partially making a grain awn pattern.

油滴天目茶碗(星建盞)徳川美術館蔵
尾州徳川家で古くから「星建盞」の名で伝えられる。砂張の覆輪がかかけられ、大小さまざまな油滴斑が入り組んで、部分的に禾目状になっている。

Water and Fire
Yin and Yang
Earthen Brazier

In the completed earthen brazier with lacquer made by firing clay, the remains made with a haigata pressed with these these two characters are sketched with ☵ on the surface with the fire chopsticks. Then the makibai is sprinkled.
Since ☵ is the kan trigram of the eight trigrams, water is expressed. Since Makibai has somewhat a feeling of cool snow, snow melting also becomes water. Water’s yin countering fire’s yang is a thing that calms the fire.
Furthermore, when finishing shozumi, a moon shape is cut during the ceremony with the ash spoon. The moon, namely, becomes yin.

水と火
陰と陽
土風炉

土を焼いてつくり漆で仕上げた土風炉には、この二文字押切の灰形をつくったあと、底に火箸で☵と描き、蒔灰をする。
☵は八卦の坎の爻で、水を表わすとされる。蒔灰は目に涼しい雪の風情で、雪もとけては水となる。火の陽に水の陰で対し、火を鎮めるのである。
さらに、初炭のおわりに、灰匙で手前に月形を切る。月すなわち陰となる。

Gogyou-dana (Five Elements Stand)

Favoured by Gengensai
Gogyo-dana
Crafted by Kimura Seibei

Two boards of fired cedar with a mottled textured finish are supported by three posts of bamboo (the one towards the guest is yin with two nodes, towards yourself is yang with three nodes, and on the far side is yin with one node). Because it is on the verge of restoring to the universe (the heavenly board and the earthly board), the five elements of wood, fire, earth, metal, water–namely the five of the boards, the charcoal fire, the earthern furo (as for the furo, the convention is an earthern furo), kettle, and hot water–it is named thus. Favoured by Urasenke’s 11th grand tea master Gengensai Soshitsu, it is used for nakaoki with the furo.

五行棚

玄々斎好 
五行棚 
木村清兵衛作

焼杉の杢目洗出しの二枚板に、竹の三本柱(客付は陰で二節、勝手付は陽で三節、向こう側は陰で一節)で支える。
乾坤(天板と地板)に木火土金水の五行、すなわち板・炭火・土風炉(風炉は土風炉が約束)・釜・湯の五つを納めるところから、その名がある。裏千家十一代家元玄々斎宗室の好みで、風炉の中置用として使われる。

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