淡交雑誌


DSCN4714Green Glazed Split Pepper Mukoudzuke (Ryokuyu Wari Sanshou) by Dou’nyuu

This month’s cover is from “Yugi Museum’s Famed Works”
Edo period (17th century) 8.5 cm tall, 12.3 cm in diameter
Editor and Text: KURABAYASHI Shigeyuki, Yugi Museum Curator

The name “split pepper” comes from the shape of the body, which triangular with large notches cut out of it like a sanshou peppercorn which has split open. On explanation says the design is from Hosokawa Sansai, and we can find precedents made for Ohdura and Ueno-ware. This work is quite large and closely resembles tea bowls made by Dounyuu and Kouetsu.

An uneven green glaze is placed over an extremely thin–to the point of disappearing–layer of paste. It allows the yellow colour of the paste to show through bewitchingly, contrasting well with the green glaze. The round base has three small feet and is stamped with Dounyuu’s 「樂」(raku) seal.

It is a ten dish set, which six done in a green glaze and four done in a thicker glaze. “Nonkou-ware Three-leaf Mukoudzuke” is written on the box lid. On the inside of the lid is written “Kanji-san Soushin” with artistic stamps. These refer to various Mid-Edo period Kyoto thread importers and the tea master Sakamoto Shuusai, who are mentioned in the “Record of the Restored Meibutsu of the House of Sen”. It is quite interesting that this work is called “three-leaf” as it is tradition of Shuusai, Karinaka Nakamura (a Kyoto Nishijin brocade merchant), and Yuasa (a Kyoto battery maker).

In this picture, the mukoudzuke holds abalone, young radish leaves, ginger, and rock nori dressed in vinegar, made by Kitchou of Kourai Bridge. The rice and soup bowls are kuro ichimoji wan and the tray is a kuro kamibari oritame zen. They are made by Watanabe Kisaburo II.

DSCN4715

緑釉割山椒向付 道入作
監修・文 倉林重幸 湯木美術館学芸員
今月の表紙「湯木美術館の名品」より
江戸時代(十七世紀)高8.5cm 胴径12.3cm

三方に大きな切込みが入った胴体の形状は、山椒(さんしょう)の実のはぜたような「割山椒」の意匠になっています。一説に細川三斎(中興)によるデザインとも言われ、小倉焼や上野焼に先例が見られますが、本作の造形はより大らかで、道入(どうにゅう)や光悦の茶碗を彷彿とさせます。
ごく薄く削られた胎土に不均一な厚みで緑釉が掛かり、むらむらと表れた胎土の黄色とつややかな緑色とが好対照になっています。丸い底には小さな足が三つ付けられ、道入の「樂」印が捺されています。緑釉六客と濃緑釉四客の十客揃で、箱蓋甲には「のんかう焼三ツ葉向日附」(むこうづけ)、同裏には「閑事庵宗信(花押)」と、それぞれ江戸中期・京都の糸割符商人で『千家中興名物記』の著ともされる茶人の坂本周斎が墨書。本作の形状を「三ツ葉」と呼んでいる点が興味深く思われます。周斎、京都の西陣織商・雁半中村家、京都の電池メーカー・湯浅家へ伝来。
今回は高麗橋吉兆が鮑・大根若菜・生姜・岩海苔に加減酢をして盛りつけました。飯椀・汁椀は黒一文字椀、膳は黒紙張り折溜膳で、ともに二代渡辺喜三郎作です。

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As always, you can click on me to make me bigger!

As always, you can click on the photo to make it bigger!

The Kouaka Chaki (lit. Red-Armour Tea Container) was favoured by the fifth Urasenke oiemoto, Jousou Soushitsu. It is hard to see from the photo, but it has a thin black lacquered body and a bright crimson lacquered lid. It’s shape is also a bit unusual.

How to Purify a Kouaka Chaki

  1. Clutching the folded fukusa in your right hand, pick up the kouaka chaki from above with you left hand.
  2. Change your grip to hold the chaki with your right thumb on top and your other fingers on the bottom.
  3. Place it on your left palm.
  4. Purify the chaki as if writing the character 「二」, first the far side.
  5. And then the near side. With the fukusa still clutched in your right hand, change your grip in the same way as before and then set the chaki down in the proper place, holding it from above with the left hand.

甲赤茶器の清め方

捌いた帛紗を右手で握り込み、甲赤茶器を左手で上から取ります①。右手親指を上にして上下に薄茶器を持ち②、左掌にのせます③.「二」の字を書くように、向こう④、手前⑤と清めます。右手の帛紗を握り込んで同様に薄茶器を扱い、左手で上から持って定座に置きます。

tessting

Nakabushi and Tenbushi Futaoki. Also, the hishaku’s gou is 1 sun 9 bu to 2 sun large with the ro and 1 sun 7 bu to 8 bu large with the furo

This month’s Tankou had an article talking about the differences between Furo and Ro. While the things it mentions are fairly basic, I think it is easy to get them mixed up, especially if you haven’t studied tea that long. Two differences that I forget/mix up still are shifting towards the kensui when retreating from the tea room, and the position of pointer finger when holding the hishaku. What other differences are there between furo and ro?

The Difference in Utensils Between Furo and Ro
A bamboo futaoki is generally used for hakobi temae, and the position of the bamboo joint differs from furo to ro. In furo, it is a “tenbushi” (the joint is towards to top) and in ro, it is a “nakabushi” (the joint is around the middle). There are also special futaoki with two or more joints. There is an anecdote which says that Rikyuu told his sons Douan and Shouan to make a futaoki. One of them made a “tenbushi” one and other made a “nakabushi” one. Both of them being beautiful so hating to discard either one, Rikyuu Koji designated them for different using depending on the furo or ro, it is said.

The size of the gou of the hishaku (the cup) also differs. On a whole, the gou used with the furo is smaller. However, if a hanging kettle or a tsutsugama is used with the ro, a smaller hishaku can be used along with it. The difference of the hishaku is not limited to just the size of the gou. The kiridome (end) of the hishaku handle also differs. In order that the front side of the handle is longer for the furo and shorter for the ro, the end of the hishaku is cut diagonally. The reason for this difference is because way the hishaku is placed is different: For the furo it is placed face up and for the ro is it placed face down.
There is a famous poem that can be used to remembering this:

風そよぐならの小川の夕暮れは禊祓ぞ夏の印なりける
At dusk a gentle breeze blows along the streams of Nara
The only sign of summer is the misogi purification

“禊祓ぞ夏の印” (written with different kanji) can also mean “a sign of summer is the handle cut towards you”.
Translator note!–> The above poem is the 98th poem in the famed collection called “Ogura Hyakunin Shu”

Question: What sort of different utensils are used depending of the furo or ro?

Answer: The furo starts in May when we welcome the hot weather, so we use many dogu that express cool and freshness. The charcoal is shorter and thinner compared to the ro, and since less of it is used, the charcoal utensils are smaller. The kettle becomes smaller and the furo is placed in the corner of the room in order that the guests don’t feel as hot. In reverse, in order to help the guests feel cool, utensils relating to water become larger. For example, as the height of summer is neared, the large “hira-mizusashi” is used. Just viewing it, the guests will be able to feel refreshed. And in the tokonoma a basket vase is used.

A Word from the Teacher
What other differences are there between furo and ro? Let’s take a look at Rikyu’s 100 Proverbs.

風炉の時炭は菜籠にかね火箸ぬり香合に白檀をたけ
“With the furo, the charcoal in a vegetable basket, metal hibashi, a lacquered kougou, and burn sandalwood”
炉のうちは炭斗瓢柄の火箸陶器香合練香としれ
“With the ro, know to use a gourd sumitori, handled hibashi, ceramic kougou, and blended incense”

These teaches us that a woven sumitori, metal hibashi, a lacquered kougou, and wood incense is used with the furo. A dried and hollowed-out goard for sumitori, hibashi with wrapped handles, and ceramic kougou and blended incense is used with the ro. The ro sumitori is not limited to gourds, and baskets can be used too, but when first opening the ro, everybody knows to use a new gourd sumitori.

DSCN4699There is also the poem:

羽箒は風炉に右羽よ炉のときは左羽をば使うとぞしる
“The furo habouki is a right feather and a ro habouki is a left feather, of course!”

Whether the right side of the habouki feather is wider or the left side changes whether using it with a ro or furo. However, as you progress in your studies, you will find this is not always true such as in a gyakute room.

教えて先生!習いに役立つ
初心者のための基磨?講座(十八回)
「風炉」と「炉」の道具の違い
竹の蓋置は主に運びの点前で使用し、節の位置により風炉用と炉用の区別をします。風炉は天節(節が上部にある)、炉は中節(節が中ほどにある)です。特殊なものとして、二つ以上の節を含むものもあります。
逸話によると、利休居士が息子の道安と少庵に竹で蓋置を切るようにと命じたところ、一人は天節を、一人は中節を製作しました。その美的感覚は双方とも捨てがたいと思った利休居士が風炉用と炉用にと使い分けたと伝えられています。

柄杓は合(湯が入る部分)の大きさに違いがあり、一般的には風炉の方が小さくなっています。但し、炉でも釣釜などで筒釜などの小ぶりな釜を使用する時には合の小さい柄杓を合わせる場合もまります。
柄杓の違いは合の大きさだけではなく、柄の「切止」にも違いがあります。風炉の柄杓は皮目の方が長くなるように、炉の柄杓は皮目の方が短くなるように斜めにそぎ切りしてまります。これは釜の上に柄杓を置く向きが、風炉は仰向け、炉では伏せて置くことからの違いです。
覚える際には有名な和歌『風そよぐならの小川の夕暮れは禊祓ぞ夏の印なりける』の一部分をひいて「禊祓(身そぎ)ぞ夏(風炉の季節)の印なりける」と覚えると良いでしょう。

Q:風炉と炉における道具の違いとはどうんなものになるのですか。
A:風炉は、五月の初風炉から始まり、暑い季節に向かっていますので、爽やかさや涼しさを表現する道具が多くなります。炭の寸法や太さは、炉のそれと比べて短く細くなり、本数も少なくなりますので、まずは炭道具が小さくなります。釜も小ぶりになり、風炉は席中の隅に設置されますので、お客様に暑さを感じさせないように工夫されています。
それとは逆に、涼しさを感じさせる「水」に関係する道具が大ぶりになります。例えば、盛夏に近づくと水指は大きな平水指を用意し、お客様に目で見た目の涼しさを演出しますし、床の間には籠花入を使用します。

先生からのひとこと
風炉と炉とでは他にどのような違いがあるのでしょうか。まずは利休百首の歌を引いてみましょう。
風炉の時炭は菜籠にかね火箸ぬり香合に白檀をたけ
炉のうちは炭斗瓢柄の火箸陶器香合練香としれ
とあります。風炉の炭斗は籠製のもの、金属製の火箸、塗の香合、香木。炉は瓢の中身をくり抜いて乾燥させた炭斗、持ち手に柄の着いた火箸、陶器の香合に練香を入れて使用するという教えです。炉の炭斗は瓢に限らず籠も使用しますが、開炉に新瓢の炭斗を使用することはろく知られています。
羽箒は風炉に右羽よ炉のときは
左羽をば使うとぞしる
ともあり、羽箒は羽の右側が広いか、左側が広いかで、風炉用と炉用が変わります。但し、お稽古が進み逆手などの点前になりますとその限りではありません。

炉用(中節)、風炉用(天節)、炉用合が大きめ(一寸九分~二寸)、風炉用合が小さめ(一寸七分半~八分半)

Tobacco Leaf Mizusashi

Tobacco Leaf Mizusashi

Learning From our Predecessors’ Aesthetic Sense
Maiolica Pottery to Dutch Tobacco Mizusashi

In the Edo period, after the shogunate closed the country to free trade, international trade was only allowed at Dejime Island near Nagasaki, to where the Dutch East India Company brought goods from all over Europe to Japan. The main trade goods were silk and spices, but Maiolica pottery made throughout Europe was brought as a private trade good. As Maiolica was a soft pottery glazed with tin and lead, various containers were selected as tea utensils. Especially pottery with large leaves glazed half in blue and half in yellow were happily called by tea men “Dutch Tobacco (Picture)” or “Tobacco Leaf”. The containers that were usually used as mizusashi were actually medicine jars. Once, on a pirate ship at a certain amusement park, I noticed a narrow Dutch tobacco mizusashi on the kitchen shelf. But it was a container for holding dry spaghetti. Just like that, it seems that not just trade goods entered Japan, but also everyday tools did too.

コラム
先人に学ぶ見立ての美意識
(元)マジョリカ陶器⇒オランダ莨水指
江戸幕府は鎖国後、長崎の出島のみで海外貿易を許し、オランダ東インド会社がヨーロッパ各地の品々を日本にもたらしました。主な交易品は絹や香料でしたが、脇荷としてヨーロッパ各地で作られていたマジョリカ陶器がありました。マジョリカ陶器は錫(すず)釉と鉛(たまり)釉が掛けられた軟質陶器で、様々な器が茶道具に見立てられています。中でも大きな葉が黄色と青色に半分ずつ掛け分けられた物を、茶人は「オランダ莨(絵)」「莨葉」と称して喜びました。普通の水指位の物は錠剤容器と言われています。以前、某遊園地の海賊船で、台所の壁の棚にオランダ莨の細水指を見つけましたが、おれはスパッゲティの乾麺容器でした。このように貿易品の容器としてのみならず、日常雑器としても到来したのかもしれません。

Here is Yae helping wounded soldiers during the Sino-Japanese War.

Here is Yae helping wounded soldier on during the Sino-Japanese War.

The Tea of Neesima Yae and Urasenke (Pt. 3)
As a Volunteer Nurse

On January 23rd, the 23rd year of Meiji, NEESIMA Jou, who had been running himself ragged establishing Doushisha University, died far away in Oh’iso. He was 47 years old. The cause was acute peritonitis, but on top of that illness was layered the stress of his work. (Cf. YOSHIMI ditto) Having spent 14 years together–good and bad–weathering the adverse social conditions towards Christianity, Yae was deeply grieved. She preserved a lamentative memorial book of “my most beloved friend” called “Notes on the illness on my beloved deceased husband Jou”. But even through this loss, Yae picked herself and without complaining renewed her efforts to pave the way for Doushisha’s operation.

One thing she did in April of the same year is become a member of the Japanese Red Cross Society, and work hard on the front lines as a volunteer nurse during the Sino-Japanese War. When the Russo-Japanese War broke out, again, she worked there. For her meritous service, she was awarded the Order of the Sacred Crown Seventh Class in Meiji 29 and then the Order of the Sacred Crown Sixth Class in Meiji 39, and she received numerous honours from the Japanese Red Cross. The Order of the Sacred Crown was established in Meiji 21 and until recently was an honour reserved for women. At the time of its creation, it had six classes and was awarded to members of the imperial family, but in Meiji 29 it was changed to eight classes and that is era when Yae was conferred the honour.

In the 19th year of Meiji, Doshisha with NEESIMA Jou as its first principle, founded the Doshisha Hospital along with the Kyoto Nurse’s College, very soon ushering in modern nursing education. The Japanese Red Cross Nurse’s Education School, which was the predecessor to the Charity Hospital started at the Kumamoto Western School, wasn’t begun until four years after this, in the 23rd year of Meiji. Yae’s aspiration as a volunteers nurse was likely to carry on through the Red Cross NEESIMA Jou’s dying wish to make the future a brighter place.

篤志看護婦として
同志社に大学を設立するため奔走していた新島襄は、明治二十三年一月二十三日、大磯に客死した。享年四十七。原因は急性腹膜炎であったが、病気がちの上に過労が重なっていた(吉海、前掲書)。キリスト教に対する世の逆風を受けながら、十四年間の苦楽をともにした八重の悲嘆は深く、二月十日には、「我最愛之友」を失った慟哭の手記「亡愛夫襄発病之覚」をしたためている。それでもなお、失意の中から立ち上がった八重は、同志社の経営にはあえて口を挟まず、新たに活躍の場を拓いてゆく。
そのひとつは、同年四月に日本赤十字社の正社員となり、篤志看護婦として日清戦争に従軍した看護活動である。日露戦争が始まると、ふたたび従軍。その功績によって、明治二十九年勲七等冠章、明治三十九年勲六等宝冠章を叙勲し、日本赤十字社からも数々の栄誉が与えられた。宝冠章は、明治二十一年に制定され、現在に去るまで女性に与えられる勲章である。制定時の等級は勲一等から勲六等で、皇族方が授与されていたが、明治二十九年に勲六等から勲八等までが追加制定され(内閣府HPより)、八重の叙勲となったもののようである。
同志社では明治十九年に、新島襄を初代校長とする京都看病婦学校ならびに同志社病院を設立し、いち早く近代看護教育に着手している。熊本洋学校に始まる博愛社病院を前身として、日本赤十字社看護婦養成所ができるのは、その四年後の明治二十三年のことである。八重の篤志看護婦志願は、先見の明を備えた新島襄の遺志を、日赤の場において受け継いだものといえるだろう。

DSCN4113The Tea of Neesima Yae and Urasenke (Pt. 2)
From her Days in Aidzu to her Journey to the Capital

In the second year of Bunkyuu (1862) the prince of Aidzu, MATSUDAIRA Katamori received the order to safeguard Kyoto. Whether it was this year or not we’re not sure, but Kakuma also went to the Capital and was arrested in the fourth year of Keiou (1868). From his imprisonment inside the Satsuma Domain’s residence, Kakuma drafted a petition to the new government called “A Humble Opinion (Kanken)”. His previous self-awareness was recognized, and he worked hard at important posts such as adviser to the Kyoto Government, first Head of the Kyoto Gov. Council, and Head of the Kyoto Merchants Council. “A Humble Opinion” contained such topics such as “schools” and “women’s education”. Kakuma’s personal views on education were the same as NEESIMA Jou’s educational ideals. In the 8th year of Meiji (1875), the two sharing the same resolve founded Doshisha.

In the 2nd year of Kyoka (1845), Yae, who was the 17 years younger sister of Kakuma, was born in Aidzu to her artillery instructor father YAMAMOTO Gonpa and her mother Saku as the fifth child (third daughter). Saku became wealthy due to her enterprising spirit and it’s said not even Kakuma could match her wisdom. Kakuma, who had studied in distant Edo and Nagasaki, taught Dutch studies at the domain school Nisshinkan. Young Yae could recite the “Nisshinkan Youth Precepts” from memory. It was a family which valued Learning, I imagine.

On the occasion of the Boshin war, Yae, who was skilled in artillery, entered into Tsuru-ga-jo Castle although she was a woman and endured the seige for one month. Yae’s first marriage was aroundthe first year of Keiou when she was 20 years old. Her husband was her older brother’s school friend, the Dutch Studies scholar KAWASAKI Shounosuke. We aren’t really sure of Shounosuke’s whereabouts after the Boshin war, but it’s said he died in the 8th year of Meiji in Tokyo at the age of 39. (cf. YOSHIMI Naoto’s “Nishima Yae: A Lifetime of Love and Fight”, Kadokawa Bookstore, 2012)

On Sep. 22nd, the first year of Meiji, Tsurugajo Castle and Aidzu Domain surrendered. Nobody knew if Kakuma who was still in the Capital was alive or dead, so Yae, her mother, and niece turned toward Kyoto to determine if he were still alive. In the November of the 4th year of Meiji, they were able to again meet with her brother. (Cf. FUKUMOTO Takehisa “Nishima Yae” in “The Life and Times of the Siblings Yamamoto Kakuma and Nishima Yae”. Doshisha University, 1989.)

After the Meiji Restoration, the Kyoto Government immediately established primary schools, including education for women. According to the “Meiji Tennou Ki #2” (Yoshikawa Koubun Kan, 1969), on Sep. 3rd the fifth year of Meiji, the Emperor visited the “New English School for Women” in Dote-cho and Maruta-cho. The School for Women was founded “in the April of this year, for the purpose of teaching advanced handicrafts and English to the children of nobles and knights”. However, soon it was opened to common people too. Upon the opening of the school, Yae received the command of the Kyoto Government in February to serve as a probationary head of the woman’s school and instructor of weaving”. Around this time, Kakuma was deeply moved by the Bible “Tendou Sogen” translated into Chinese presented to him by the American missionary M.L. Gordon who was residing in Kyoto. Yae also studied this Bible. It was at the house of Gordon who facilitated her study that she occasionally meet a certain young man: Neesima Jou.

For Jou, Yae was a worthy conversational partner and he wrote to his American former teacher that she was a “handsome woman”. Thus the two were engaged in October of the 8th year of Meiji. Since she was becoming the life companion to a Christian, Yae gave up her position at the Women’s school. That year in November, Doshisha English School opened. Next year Janurary, Yae was baptised, and the missionary J.G Davis married Jou and Yae. Jou at age 32 and Yae at age 30 boldly took off. From here on, many previous scholars have talked at length about those two.

会津での日々から上洛まで
文久二年(一八六二)、会津藩主、松平容保は京都守護職を拝命した。この年かどうかは不明だが、覚馬も上洛し、慶応四年(一八六八)に捕縛される。幽閉中の薩摩藩邸で、『管見』と題する新政府への建白書を草した覚馬は、その先見性が認められて、京都府顧問、初代京都府会議長、京都商工会議所会頭などの要職をつとめた。『管見』の中には「学校」「女学」の項目がある。教育にも一家言あった覚馬は、新島襄の教育理念に替同し、明治八年(一八七五)、同じ志のふたりはともに同志社を設立した。
覚馬の十七歳年下の妹・八重は、弘化二年(一八四五)十一月三日、砲術師範の父・山本権八、母・佐久の第五子(三女)として会津藩に生まれた。佐久は進取の気象に富み、その聡明さは覚馬も及ばぬ程だったという。江戸、長崎に遊学した覚馬は藩校、日新館の蘭学所で教え、幼い八重も『日新館童子訓』を覚えて、暗誦することができた。学問に親しむ家風だったのだろう。
砲術の心得があった八重は、会津戊辰戦争のさいには、女子ながら鶴ヶ城に入り、一ヶ月の籠城に耐えた。八重の最初の結婚は二十歳の慶応元年ころ。夫は、兄の学友の蘭学者、川崎尚之助であった。戌辰戦争後の尚之助の消息はよく分かっていないが、明治八年、享年三十九にして、東京で歿したという(吉海直人『新島八重 愛と闘いの生涯』角川書店、二〇一二)。
明治元年九月二十二日、鶴ヶ城、会津藩は降伏した。上洛した覚馬の生死は不明と伝えられたが、生存が判明するや、八重は、母、姪と京都に赴き、明治四年十一月、兄との再会を果たした(福本武久「新島八重」『山本覚馬・新島八重兄妹の生涯』所収。学校法人同志社、一九八九)。
明治維新を迎えて、直ちに小学校を開設した京都府は、女子教育にも先進的で、『明治天皇紀第二』(吉川弘文館、一九六九)によれば、明治五年九月三日、土手町丸太町の「新英学校及女紅場」に天皇の臨幸があったという。女紅場は「華士族等の子女に英語及び高等の手芸を授くる目的を以て、本年四月」に創立され、まもなく庶民にも開放された。開学に際して八重は、二月に京都府から「女紅場権舎長兼機織教導試補」を拝命している。このころ覚馬は、入洛中のアメリカ人宣教師M.L.ゴードンから漢訳聖書『天道遡源』を贈られて深く感じ入り、八重にも聖書を学ばせた。その学習先のゴードン宅で、たまたま出会った青年こそが新島襄であった。
襄にとって八重は、語るに足る相手で、アメリカの恩師には、この婦人を「ハンサム・ウーマン」だと書き送っている。かくして明治八年十月、二人は婚約。クリスチャンの伴侶となった八重は、そのために女紅場の任を解かれてしまう。この年の十一月には同志社英学校が開校。翌一月、八重は受洗し、宣教師J.G.デイヴィス邸で襄と八重は挙式した。襄三十二歳、八重三十歳の果敢な出発であった。その後の両人については、多くの先学が詳述されているところである。

Yae wrapped in Western clothing, photographed on November 3rd, the 21st year of Meiji. It was her birthday.
洋服に身を包んだ八重。明治21年11月3日撮影。この日は八重の誕生日だった。

The Tea of Neesima Yae and Urasenke (Pt. 1)
by HIROSE Chisako, Professor at Doshisha Women’s College

The main character of the 2013 NHK Taiga Drama, NEESIMA Yae, was born in Aidzu during the Bakumatsu period. Her lord’s House fell into the predicament of the Boshin War, so as a women she joined the front lines of the battle, fighting with her own gun that she carried. Also, after moving to Kyoto, as the wife of NEESIMA Jou who helped found Doshisha, she exerted herself as a volunteer nurse during the Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese Wars. Futhermore, Yae had one more face, that as a student of Urasenke Tea Ceremony.

The chajin Neeshima Souchiku (Yae’s tea name), who put on the kettle nearly every week at her teahouse which Ennousai christened Jakuchuu-an [Hermitage in the Midst of Tranquility], was a pioneer for today’s female chajin, and had left many footsteps for us to follow in. In this months edition, let us introduce the Tea of Neesima Yae, who lived through the Bakumatsu all the way until the Showa period, along with the Tea of Urasenke during that time.

The mascot character "Yae-san" of Doshisha College.

The mascot character “Yae-san” of Doshisha College.

Introduction
Many people know that Neeshima Yae (1845-1931) was the wife of Neesima Jou, the founder of Doshisha. But that she was the younger sister of YAMAMOTO Kakuma who worked as an advisor to the Kyoto Government on the modernization of Kyoto during the Meiji Restoration, less people realize. Yae, who happened to meet Neesima Jou (1943-90) through her brother Kakuma, along with people studying under Neesima Jou, were bound by fate with Urasenke. The ancestrial home of siblings Kakuma and Yae was Aidzu-han, the influential province in Tohoku, where they served for generations the House of YAMAMOTO, who were artillery instructors. Aidzu having allied with the shogunate and feeling the shame of defeat after the Boshin War, there was no encounter invited by the agitation of the Bakumatsu/Restoration period more unexpected than fate which led Yae to meet people in Kyoto. Truly, the union of Time, Place, People was a blessing bestowed upon Yae.

新島八重の茶の湯と裏千家
廣瀬千紗子 同志社女子大学教授

平成25年のNHK大河ドラマの主人公・新島八重は、幕末の会津に生まれ、主家が窮地に陥った戊辰戦争では、女性ながら戦線に加わり、自ら銃を執って奮戦しました。また、京都に移り住んでからは同志社の創諸者である新島襄の妻として、あるいは日清・日露戦争の篤志看護婦として活躍します。そして、八重にはもう一つ、裏千家茶道の門人しての顔がありました。

自邸内にある圓能斎命名の茶室寂中庵で毎週のように釜を懸ける茶人・新島宗竹(八重の茶名)は、近代の女性茶人の草分けとして、大きな足跡を残しています。今月号では、幕末から昭和までを生き抜いた新島八重の茶の湯を、当時の裏千家茶道のようすとともに紹介します。

はじめに
新島八重(一八四五~一九三一)は、同士社の創立者、新島襄夫人として知られるが、明治維新期に京都の近代化に尽力した京都府顧問、山本覚馬(一八二八~九二)の妹であることは、知る人ぞ知るところである。八重は、兄覚馬を通じて新島襄(一八四三~九〇)と出逢い、新島襄に学んだ人々とともに、裏千家との縁を結んだ。覚馬・八重兄妹の生家は東北の雄藩、会津藩に代々仕えた砲術師範、山本家である。幕府方にあって、戊辰戦争に敗北した無念を思えば、八重が京都で出会った人々との縁は、幕末維新期の激動が招き寄せた奇遇というほかはない。まさに、時と地と人の和合が、八重に与えた恩寵であった。

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