武士のメシ


Sanada Yukimura looks so spiffy in paisley!

Sengoku Period Art of Survival

1. Surviving without a pot or kettle
When at war, we must steam rice even without a pot or kettle.
As a method for making steam rice in times of emergency, let’s effectively use things close at hand. The way is no doubt well-informed.
Put rice into a hand towel and wet it well with water. Dig a hole in the ground, and bury the rice filled towel. Cook it by lighting fire on top of that. If you don’t have a towel, a straw or goza mat can be used instead to cook it in the same way. You should remember how to light a fire as common knowledge.

2. The Dangerous Trap of Raw Rice
In times of emergency, how should we eat raw rice?
In the feild, long rains were a powerful enemy. There were also times when there was no fuel, or they couldn’t use a fire. In the Warring States Period, there were times when they had to eat raw rice because they couldn’t use a fire. But however hungry you are, I can’t recommend raw rice. Immediately, you will get a stomachache. When you must eat raw rice so matter what, there is nothing to do but eat it after soaking it in water for about four hours. It’s said that at the Battle of Sekigahara, the Sengoku warriors who couldn’t wait four hours for their hunger being so fierce, were altogether sick in thier bowels. A simple but lengthy method to try.

3. Seasonings During War Time
During a battle, something even more frightening than running out of rice was a shortage of salt. Of course rice, but also foods like miso with a high salt content had to be carried in a portable to war. This, too, was one way to make war. Take, for example, miso. Potato stalks could be soaked and boiled together with miso and rolled into a cord shape. Also, vegetables like dried daikon could be boiled and dried with the same method. Or a board could be coated in miso. Such sun dried items could be easily carried to the battlefeild.
After being coated in miso, dried vegetables could be chewed on straight like that or they could be put in hot water to make miso soup. It’s just like modern instant miso soup.
Furthermore, when their opponent was far off, or it seemed it would be a long battle, generals of the Warring States Period slightly altered this portable method.

戦国生き残り術
①鍋釜なしで生き残る
戦のたび、鍋や釜が無くても米は炊かねばならない
非常時の炊飯術は、手近なものを有効利用しよう。道はきっと、通ずるはず。
米を手ぬぐいに入れてよく水濡らす。地面を掘って米を入れて手ぬぐいを埋め、その上で火を燃やし炊く、手ぬぐいがなければこも、むしろ、ござなどを変わりに用いて同様に炊いていた。さらに桶に米と水焼けた石を入れて炊く方法も。火を起こす方法は常識として覚えておくべき。

②生米は危険な罠
非常時に生米をいかにして食らうか
野戦中の長雨は大敵。また、燃やすものが無く火が使えないこともある。戦国時代は火が使えないために生米を食べざるを得ないこともあったのだ。だがいくら腹が減っても生米はおすすめできない。すぐに腹の調子が悪くなる。どうしても生米をたべる必要がある時は、四時間程度水に浸してからたべるしかない。関ヶ原の戦いではひもじさのあまり、4時間も待てなかった戦国武士たちもいて、ことごとく腹を下したという。時間はかかるが簡単に試せる方法だ。

③戦時中の調味料
戦の時、米穀が切れることよりも恐怖だったのが塩不足
米はみちろんのこと味噌などの塩分を含んだ調味料も工夫して戦さに携帯した。これも戦術のひとつなのだ。たとえば味噌は、芋の茎を味噌と共に煮て染み込ませ、紐状にするほか、干した大根などの野菜も同様に煮込んで干したり、味噌を板に塗り、日干ししたものを携帯戦場に持って行った。味噌を塗ってから干した野菜は、そのままかじることもあれば、お湯にそのまま入れて味噌汁にもできた。現代でいうインスタントの味噌汁だ。
また戦国時代の武将は、戦の相手が遠方か、長期戦になりそうかなどで、その携帯方法を微妙に変えた。

Advertisements

Chestnut Rice and Pickles. This was actually my dinner. I live a decadent life.

Food List of Warring States Samurai: What they had and lacked.

Vegetables
Had: Burdock, Daikon Radish, Shiitake, Matsutake Mushroom, Root Veggies (Taro), Green Onion, Garlic Chive, Soybean, Adzuki Bean, Perilla Melon, Spinach, Angelica Parsley, and many others.
Lacked: Chinese Cabbage (Began to be fully cultivated after the Russo-Japanese War), Sweet Potato (Began to be cultivated at Tanegashima after the start of the Edo Period), Potato (There are records of their cultivation during the latter part of the Edo Period)
Seafood
Had: Sardine, Mackerel, Sea Bream, Salmon, Octopus, Squid, Loach, Orient Clam, Shijimi Clam, Abalone, Oyster, Seaweed, and many others.
Lacked: Fugu (Prohibited as a food from the Muromachi Period until the Meiji Period when Itou Hirobumi gave a special order)
Grains
Had: White Rice, Brown Rice, Wheat, Udon Noodles, Rice Bran, Japanese Millet, Italian Millet, etc.
Limited: Buckwheat (In this period, it was eaten as buckwheat dumplings or buckwheat mash)
Meat
Had: Boar, Deer, Pheasent, Crane, Rabbit, Racoon Dog, etc.
Lacked: Chicken, Horse, Cow (excepted Takayama Ukon and his ilk)
Fruit
Had: Persimmon, Chestnut, Peach, Pear, Chinse Plum, Apricot, Japanese Plum, Walnut, Loquat, etc.
Manufactured Foodstuff
Had: Natto, Tofu, Umeboshi, Salt Fish, Pickles, Kinako, etc.
Condiments
Had: Miso, Salt, Rice Yeast, Sake, Sugar, etc.
Limited: Soy Sauce (First makes an apperance in the “Setsuyou-shuu Ekirin-hon” published in 1597. Maybe the latter Warring States Period had it?)

戦国武士の食材リスト―あったもの、なかったもの
野菜
有:ごぼう、大根、しいたけ、松茸、いも(里芋)、ねぎ、ニラ、大豆、小豆、しそ瓜、ホウレンソウ、アシタバなど多数
無:白菜(本格的に栽培が始まったのは日露戦争ごろから)、さつまいも(種子島で栽培が始まったのは江戸時代になって以降)、じゃがいも(栽培の記録があるのは江戸時代後期以降)
魚介類
有:鰯、鯖、鯛、鮭、蛸、烏賊、どじょう、はまぐり、しじみ、あわび、かき、海藻類など多数
無:ふぐ(室町時代以降、明治期に伊藤博文が特令を出すまで食用が禁止されていた)
穀類
有:白米、玄米、麦、うどん、ぬか、ひえ、あわなど
△:そば(この時代はそば饅頭、そばがきとして食べた)
肉類
有:イノシシ、シカ、キジ、ツル、ウサギ、タヌキなど
無:ニワトリ、ウマ、ウシ(高山右近らは例外)
くだもの
有:柿、栗、桃、梨、梅、杏、すもも、くるみ、びわなど
加工食品
有:納豆、豆腐、梅干、塩辛、香の物、きな粉など
調味料
有:味噌、塩、麹、酒、砂糖など
△:醤油(1597年刊行の「節用集易林本」に初めて登場。戦国後期からか?)

Mitsunari, who turned down dried persimmons out of health concerns even at the point of death

Ishida Mitsunari (1560-1600)
Ishida Mitsunari was born in Oumi Province as the second son of Ishida Masatsugu. His childhood name was Sakichi.
He served Hideyoshi as a page. He served Hideyoshi as cheif commander during the campaign to attack Chuugoku. Since Hideyoshi become the shogun, Mitsunari too rose prominence as his close associate.
He was selected as one of the five commissioners. Excelling at dealing with paperwork, he worked hard as Hideyoshi’s right-hand man. After Hideyoshi’s death, he was the main actor countering against the influence of Tokugawa, but lost at the Battle of Sekigahara. He used a crest depicting “大吉大一大万”. It means, “One for all and all for one, then we shall have world peace.”

Picture Caption: The three cups of tea offered to Hideyoshi and the dried persimmons he declined to eat
Above: The three cups of tea of carefully considered warmth and thickness offered to Hideyoshi, that caused him to make Mitsunari an officer.
Below: Mitsunari was mistaken about the effect of dried persimmons.

After this, Mitsunari was sentenced to die in the Capital. While on the way to the execution grounds, feeling thirsty he said, “I’d like some hot water.” Since there was no hot water, it seems the guardman gave him some dried persimmons. Upon this, he refused them saying, “I cannot eat dried persimmons since they become poisonous phlegm.” Mitsunari worried over his own health unchangingly, even as the moment of death was upon him. The people around him laughed, “This is a man whose head is about to be severed. There’s no way such poison would have time to take effect.” But Mitsunari gave this refutation.
“For the hearts of the small men who criticize me that is quite right. However, those who embrace great ambitions hold their lives dear until the very moment their neck is severed. I think it is because they still desire to accomplish their dream somehow.”
About dried persimmons, Mitsunari’s understanding was mistaken. It was thought that phlegm was a disease of the respitory system such as asthma, and dried persimmons had an effect on that. Persimmons are high in Vitamin A and C and potassium, and thus have very high nutritional value. Also, the white powder that develops on the surface has an effect of easing coughing. None the less, we should follow the example of the indomitable spirit of Mitsunari, who was careful about what he ate until the moment of his death, refusing to give up on his great dream for the revival of the House of Toyotomi.

Recipe: Nira Rice
Ingredients: Garlic leeks (nira), Cold rice
Directions: Boil normal chopped nira in a broth of bonito and konbu. When the nira is cooked, add in miso and cold rice and boil.

死の間際まで体を気遣い干し柿を断った三成

秀吉をもてなした「3杯の茶」と食べるのを固辞した「干し柿」
熱さや濃さの なる「3杯の茶」で秀吉をもてなしたことが士官のきっかけとなる(上)。
三成は「干し柿」の効能を誤解していた(下)。

いしだ・みつなり
石田正継の次男として近江国に生まれる。幼名は左吉。
小姓として秀吉に仕える。秀吉が総司名官を務めた中国攻めに従軍。秀吉が天下人になると、三成も側近として次第に台頭。
五奉行に抜擢される。事務処理能力に優れ、秀吉の懐刀として活躍。秀吉の死後、反徳川勢力の中心となるが関ヶ原で敗れる。「大吉大一大万」と記された紋を用いた。「万民が一人のため、一人が万民のために尽せば太平の世が訪れる」という意味。
〈1560年~1600年〉

その後、三成は京で所刑されることになる。刑場に向かう途中、渇きをおぼえた彼は「湯がほしい」と申し出る。だが湯がなっかたため、警固の者は干し柿を与えようとした。すると、「干し柿は痰の毒になるから食わない」と断ったという。死が目前に迫っていたにもかかわらず、自らの体を気遣う三成。まわりの者は「これから首をはねられる人間が、毒忌みをしたところではじまるまい」と大笑いしたが、彼はこう反論した。
「なんじらのような小者の心には、もっともなことだ。しかし、大望を抱く者は、たとえ首をはねられる間際まで、命を惜しむのは、なんとかして本懐をとげたいと思うからなのだ」
干し柿について三成の認識には誤解がある。痰とは喘息など呼吸器の疾患だと思われるが、むしろ干し柿はそれらに効果があるからだ。柿はビタミンAやC、カリウムを多く含み、栄養価は非常に高い。また表面に発生する白い粉はマンニットという成分で、咳止めに効果がある。とはいえ、死の間際メシにこだわりながら豊臣家復興という大望を諦めようとはしなかった三成の不屈の精神は、見習うべきものがある。

レシピ:ニラ雑炊
材料:ニラ、冷や飯
作り方:カツオと昆布の合わせ出汁に適当に切ったニラを入れて煮る
ニラが煮えたら味噌と冷や飯を入れて煮る

Concerned with what he ate until the moment of his death
Ishida Mitsunari

Picture Caption: Nira (Chinese Chive) Rice
While fleeing, his abdomen damaged, Mitsunari suffered from geri. The Jouzan Kidan says that Mitsunari, upon consuming the nira rice prepared by Tanaka Yoshimasa, threw himself down and slept soundly snoring. It’s because nira rice has the effect of mitigating stomache pain.

During a meal, the living styles and beliefs of those eating are projected. As the only one of the five commissioners in the Toyotomi administration who worked hard, Mitsunari became the losing general during the great defeat at the decisive battle of Sekigahara. Come see how he lived in this book “The Food of Samurai.”

He recovered from abdominal pain by eating nira rice
Due to his victory at the Battle of Sekigahara, the hegemony of the representative general of the eastern army, Tokugawa Ieyasu, become rock solid and heralded the demise of the Toyotomi period. However there was one man who refused to give up until the very end, who devoted himself steadfastly to the House of Toyotomi. That man was Ishida Mitsunari.
Mitsunari, as the brains behind the Toyotomi administration, primarily showed an extraordinary shrewdness as the face of the administration. His wisdom is illustrated in the anecdote of his meeting with Hideyoshi.
While falconing, Hideyoshi rested at the temple on the way. In order to quench his thirst, he called for some tea. The one serving him was Mitsunari, at that time 14 or 15 years old. Mitsunari first served an easy to drink “weak tea in a large bowl.” When Hideyoshi requested tea once again, Mitsunari served a second cup of “slightly hot tea in a mid-sized bowl,” and a third cup of “hot thick tea in a small bowl.” Hideyoshi was so impressed by such modest thoughtfulness that he immediately took Mitsunari into his attendance.
Let us return to the story of the Battle of Sekigahara. Even after his defeat, Mitsunari, who prayed for security of the House of Toyotomi, never let his belief waver. There are two episodes relating to food that symbolize this.
After Mitsunari was captured by Tanaka Yoshimasa, he requested nira rice in response to Yoshimasa’s desire to serve him a last meal. Nira helps the digestive system work, improves circulation, and has a warming effect on the body, so it has been used since olden times for indigestion and over sensitivity to the cold. Furthermore, since the fragrant compound of allyl sulfide aids in the absorption of Vitamin B1 and promotes the break down of sugars, nira works to advance the regeneration of energy. In reality, Mitsunari was tormented by intense abdominal pain and suffered from geri during his flight. In other words, it was not at all with the spirit of being a last meal, but for the sake of easing stomach pains and maintaining high spirits that he ate nira rice.

Menu: Nira Rice, Pickles
Ingredients: Nira (Garlic Chives), White rice

死に際まで食を気遣った
石田三成

ニラ雑炊
敗走中、腹をこわし、下痢に苦しんでいた三成。「常山紀談」には、田中吉政が用意したニラ雑炊を平らげると、三成はごろりと横になり、高いびきをかいて眠ってしまった、とある。ニラ雑炊には、腹痛を和らげる効果があるのだ

食事には、食する者の生き方や信念も投影される。豊臣政権で五奉行のひとりとして活躍しながらも、天下分け目の閑ヶ原の合戦で大敗、敗軍の将となった石田三成。その『武士のメシ』からは彼の生き様が見えてくる。

ニラ雑炊を食べて腹痛から回復
閑ヶ原の合戦の勝利によって、東軍総代将・徳川家康の覇権は盤石となり、豊臣の時代は終罵を迎えた。だが最後まで諦めず、豊臣家に忠義を尽そうとする男がいた。石田三成である。
三成は豊臣政権のブレーンとして、主に行政面で辣腕をふるった。彼の才気は秀吉との出会いの逸話にも表れている。
秀吉は鷹狩の途中ある寺に立ち寄り、喉の渇きを癒すために茶を所望した。その接侍に当ったのが、当時14、15歳の三成だった。三成ははじめに飲みやすい「大きな茶碗にぬる加減の茶」を差し出し、秀吉がさらに茶を求めると、2杯目に「中碗にやや熱めの茶」を、三杯目には「小さな茶碗に熱くて濃茶」を差し出した。秀吉はその細やかな心配りに感心し、すぐに三成を近侍にとりたてた。
話を関ヶ原の合戦に戻そう。敗戦後も、豊臣家の安泰を願う三成の信念に揺らぎはなかった。そのことは食に関する2つのエピソードが象徴している。
徳川方の田中吉政に捕縛された三成は、吉政の「最後の食事をふるまいたい」との申し出に対し、ニラ雑炊を求めた。ニラは胃腸の働きを整えたり、血行をよくして体を温める効果があり、古くから消化不良や冷え性に用いられてきた。さらに香り成分の硫化アリルがビタミンB1の吸収を助け、糖分の分解を促進させるため、エネルギー代謝を向上させる働きもあった。実は三成は、敗走中に猛烈な腹痛におそわれ、下痢に苦しんでいた。つまり彼にはこの食事を最後にする気は毛頭なく、腹痛を平らげ、鋭気を養うためにニラ雑炊を食したのだ。

お献立
ニラ雑炊
漬け物
食材
ニラ
白米

New Year’s Osechi Whose Importance of Colour is Based on the Theory of Yin-Yang and the Five Elements

Along with zouni, the food essential to New Year’s is osechi cooking. According to the previously mentioned “Kimura Uemon Memoranda”, the osechi of Masamune used a great variety of dishes: about 60 kinds. It had foods that are rare today like whale and swan, foods that were unobtainable in Sendai Provice like lobster, mullet roe, and oranges. For that time period, it was quite an extravagent menu. It was an osechi meal that is said to have gladly matched Masamune’s deep knowledge of cooking.
The colour scheme of the osechi cooking was also taken into consideration. Importance was placed on the five colours of white, yellow, green, red, and black. These five colors have their origin in the theory of yin-yang and the five elements. Samurai wisdom knew that by eating foods of these five colours, balanced nutrition could be gained.
As a warrior, the new year was a special and very important juncture. Having remained alive and uninjured from the previous year, he welcomed the new year with gratitude. He prayed to win and advance through battles as the current year continued, and at the same time offered up each day to the gods. The New Year’s cruisine of Masamune was not merely a luxurious and dazzling feast. It included the earnest hopes of a warrior.
What has been recreated here is 6 dishes from within that menu. The modernly indispensable red and white kamaboko was an expesive food in that time which only daimyo could eat.

陰陽五行説に基づき五色を重視したおせち
雑煮と並んで重要な正月料理がおせち料理である。前出の『木村宇右衛門覚書』によると、正宗のおせち料理は多種多様な食材を使用し、60品目を迎えていたようだ。現在では珍しい鯨や白鳥、仙台藩では獲れない伊勢海老やからすみ、ミカンなどもあり、当時としてはかなり豪華な献立である。料理への造詣が深かった正宗の面目躍如とも言うべきおせち料理である。
ここに再現したのは、そのうちの6品目。現在のおせち料理に欠かせない紅白かまぼこは、当時は大名クラスしか口にえきないとても高価な食べ物だった。
おせち料理は色どりにも配慮がなされ、白・黄・緑・赤・黒の五色が重視された。この五色は陰陽五行思想に由来し、五色の食べ物を摂ることで栄養のバランスと色の力を取り込むことができるという、武士の知恵が込められている。
武士にとって正月は非常に重要な節目である。旧年を無事に生き残ることができ、新しい年を迎えることができた感謝と、今年も続くであろう戦いの日々に勝ち残れるようにという祈願とを、同時に神に捧げる日だからだ。正宗の正月料理も、ただ豪華絢爛であるだけではなく、武士としての切実な思いが込められているのだろう。

Date Masamune (Vol. 3)
Over 60 New Year’s dishes!
Generals of the Warring States period also ate New Year’s soups and crusine. This time we recreate the New Year’s meal of the lord of Sendai Province, Date Masamune. With what kinds of food did Masamune, who is said to have had a deep knowledge of cooking, welcome the New Year?

Picture Caption: Date Masamune’s New Year’s Soup and Cruisine
The closer tray holds ozouni soup and unrefined sake. The farther tray holds 6 New Year’s dishes. According to historical records, Masamune’s New Year’s meal had over 60 dishes with many various ingredients and cooking methods. It was a menu festive to the eye and very extravagent. This time, we recreate one part of that meal.

Menu: Ozouni soup, boiled abalone, dried sardines, red and white kamaboko, herring roe, boiled burdock
Ingredients: Tofu, mochi, taro, giant radish, burdock, abalone, greens, sea cucumber, herring, rape stems, anchovy, kamaboko, herring roe

Zouni soup was originally a samurai’s new year’s crusine.
The custom of zouni started in the Muromachi period and had diffused to nearly the entire country as New Year’s crusine by the Sengoku period. Welcoming the Spirit of the Year on New Year’s, the energy of the spirit could be received through eating it as zouni while offering the local harvest of the sea and mountain. Originally, zouni (lit. various things-boiled) was called houzou (lit. boiled-various things). “Hou” means “to boil”. It probably came to be called that as it was a dish made of various ingredients like mochi, vegetables, and seafood.
Well, the zouni recreated this time is the one of the Lord of Sendai Province, Date Masamune. It has 8 ingredients of abalone, herring, sea cucumber, giant radish, burdock, tofu, black beans, and rape stems. The mochi is square mochi. This recipe is preserved in a document called the “Kimura Uemon Memoranda (A Record of the Words and Deeds of Date Masamune)” which was recorded by a page during the last years of Masamune’s life.
The “Cooking Vocabulary” which was published in the 20th year of Kan`ei (1643), roughly the same period as the death of Masamune (1636), also has a method for making zouni. It says to “make it with the lees of miso. Add in mochi, tofu, potato, giant radish, sea slug, abalone, flat bonito, and greens,” and resembles the zouni made by Masamune.
What was originally crusine of warrior society, zouni widely diffused to the common people in the Edo period. The “Morisada Mankou” which comments of the customs of common people of the Edo period also talks about zouni. It says that the zouni of Osaka was made with round mochi and miso and used taro corm, tofu, white radish, and abalone. In Edo, it was made with a square mochi and a clear soup and used spinach and bonito. Already in the Edo period, there were local varieties of zouni.

Recipe: Zouni
Ingredients: tofu, mochi, taro, white radish, abalone, greens
Directions: Boil the ingredients in a stock made of goby fish and bonito. Add the ingredients in order of the taro, white radish, abalone, tofu, green, and grilled mochi. (As you like, it is fine to add in sea cucumber, herring, and rape stem.)

戦国武将たちも正月には雑煮やおせち料理を食べていた。今回再現したのは、仙台藩主・伊達政宗の正月料理。料理に深い造詣があったと伝えられる政宗はどんあ『武士のメシ』で新年を迎えていたのだろうか。
正月料理は60品以上!
伊達政宗の御雑煮とおせち料理
手前の膳は、御雑煮とにごり酒。奥の膳には、おせち料理を6品。文献によれば、正宗の正月料理は60品目を超えて、食材も調理方法も多彩で、見た目も華やかで、贅を尽した献立てだったようだ。今回はそのうちの一部を再現した
お献立
御雑煮、煮アワビ、田作り、紅白かまぼこ、数の子、ごぼうの煮物
食材
豆腐、餅、里芋、大根、ごぼう、アワビ、青菜、ナマコ、ニシン、菜の茎、かたくち鰯、かまぼこ、数の子
雑煮はもともと武士の正月料理だった
雑煮の風習が始まるのは室町時代で、戦国時代には正月料理としてほぼ全国に普及していた。正月に歳神さまを迎えて、地元の海や山の幸を供えつつ、雑煮として共食することによって、神のエネルギーを頂戴するためだ。もともと雑煮は「烹雑」と呼ばれ、「烹」は「煮る」という意。餅や野菜、海産物など雑多な食材を煮て食べることから、そう名付けられたのだろう。
さて今回再現した雑煮は、仙台藩主・伊達政宗のものである。食材はアワビ、ニシン、ナマコ、大根、ごぼう、豆腐、黒豆、菜の茎の8品。餅は角餅である。晩年の正宗が語った話を小姓が書き留めた『木村宇右衛門覚書(伊達政宗言行録)』という資料に残されていたレシピだ。
正宗が亡くなった年(1636年)とほぼ同時代の寛永20年(1643)に出た『料理物語』にも雑煮の作り方が出ている。「味噌かすましで作る。餅、豆腐、芋、大根、いりこ、あわび、平かつお、くきたら(青菜)などをいれる」とあり、正宗の雑煮と似た作りになっている。
元来は武家社会の料理であった雑煮が、一般に広く普及するのは江戸時代に入ってから。江戸時代の庶民の風俗を解説した『守貞謾稿』にも雑煮の記述がある。大阪の雑煮は丸餅味噌仕立てで、小芋、豆腐、大根、アワビを用い、江戸ではは切り餅すまし汁で、小松菜とカツオ節を用いている、とある。江戸時代からすでに雑煮には地域色があったのだ。
レシピ
雑煮
材料
豆腐、餅、里芋、大根、アワビ、青菜
作り方
ハゼとカツオの合わせ出し汁で具材を煮る
煮る順番は、里芋、大根、アワビ、豆腐、青菜、焼きいた餅(好みでナマコ、ニシン、菜の茎を入れてもよい)