日本人の坐り方


Detail of Img 25

The Yankee-suwari of Samurai
When I was searching through photographs from late Edo Japan, I had a rather large shock when I found image 25. The scene is at the entrance of a samurai family’s mansion. The scene is of a self-important looking warrior traveling to a castle in an extravagent palaquin decorated with black and gold lacquer.Those surrounding the palaquin wait upon the lord’s presence with lowered heads. What is that seated position called? All of the retainer-like warriors are in a position similar to “yankee-suwari”: this can’t just be my imagination. And not just this single picture either. I searched for other examples of the same thing, and there were! (Img. 26)

Img 26

A swarthy faced man is sitting on a stump wearing a crested haori coat. He holds an upright fan at his left knee and a book in his right hand. And indeed, he is looking self-important. Squatting down with both knees up is a person who appears to be like a townsman with his head lowered. This is the position called “yankee-suwari”.
I don’t think there are many people who feel this position similar to “groveling (hai-tsukubaru)” on the ground is artistically beautiful. Incidentally, the modern position of “seiza” was formally called “tsukubau”. About this, let me point out that the stance of seiza includes the implication of “groveling” or “submitting” by those inferior to oneself.
In image 25 which shows the same crouching position. While the warrior wearing a haori with his upper body erect isn’t very yankee-ish, the attendants without hakama who are leaning their chest against their thighs are most certainly doing what we now call “yankee-suwari”. Guessing from their dress, it seems possible they are townspeople employed as attendents by retainers not financially well off. This isn’t an established style of sitting, but has an air of nobody caring really how the feet are as long as the head isn’t held high.
To make this comparision is bad, but the posture of samurai waiting thier turn when attending at the imperial court is stylish and good-looking.
Image 27, from “Kasuga Gongen Genki-e”, is a scene at Fujiwara no Norimichi’s mansion. Among the retainers in front of the ox cart which Norimichi rides to serve at the imperial palace are four warriors sitting near the ox cart, with lacquered bows in their right hands. They readied in a position called “kata-shouza”, with their left knee standing up in contrast with their right knee spread open wide. Most likely skilled archers I suppose. The four men aligned and standing ready in tate-hiza like this has a majestic and magnificent feeling indeed. This position seems to endow those serving at the imperial court, no matter what duties they have, with an appropriate dignity.
It isn’t the signature phrase of the drama “Mito Komon”, but if an official said “You head is too high! Wait your turn!”, at once people lowered only their heads and took the position of “tsukubau” before them. If we assume this spread within warrior-class society, this way of sitting, which is used unchanged in any way by these commoners gambling at the crossroads (Img 28), was probably estalished. Even if that is so, when we look at the submissive flavour of this position (Img 25, 26), we can imagine how popular the low class samurai were of which old school rakugo often made fun.
武士のヤンキー坐り
幕末の日本を撮影した写真を調べていたときに、図25の映像を見つけた衝撃はたいそう大きなものdった。武家屋敷の玄関の前。黒漆に蒔絵を施した豪奢な駕籠で自分の高そうな武士が登城するという場面である。駕籠を取り囲む者たちは頭を低くして殿の御前に控えている。その坐り方は何ということか。家臣らしき武士までが「ヤンキー坐り」をしていたなどとは、まさk想像だにしなかった。それもこの一枚だけではない。他にも同じような事例がないかと探してみると、ある!(図26)切り株に腰掛けた浅黒い顔の男は紋付きを羽織、左膝の上に扇子を立てて右手に書物らしきものをもっている。いかにも偉そうにとしているが、頭を低くしている町人風の身なりの者は両立て膝でしゃがみ込む、いわゆれ「ヤンキー坐り」の恰好だ。
地面に「這い蹲る」ようなこの恰好を絵的に美しいと感じる人はあまりいないとは思うが、当時この坐り方は「つくばう」と呼ばれていたものと思われる。ちなみに現代の「正座」の恰好にも、かつては「つくばう」という呼び名あった。このことは、立場が劣る者が「這い蹲る」「屈服する」という意味合いが正坐という姿勢のなかに含まれていることを示している。
図25では、同じようなしゃがみ込む恰好でも、羽織袴の武士は少し上体が起き上がっていて、それほどヤンキーっぽくはないが、袴を着けていない従者たちは太腿に胸を預けて、いまで言う「ヤンキー坐り」そのものだ。出で立ちから想像すると、財政に余裕のない家臣たちが外回りの雑事のために町人を雇っていたのかも知れない。その坐り方には、決まったスタイルがあるわけでなく、とりあえず頭さえ高くなければ、足の処し方はうるさく言わない、といった風である。
比べては悪いが、宮廷に仕える侍たちは控えのときの身構えにもスタイルがあって恰好が良い。
図27は『春日権現験記絵』より、藤原教通邸での場面。内裏に出仕する教通を乗せた牛車の前にいる家臣たちのうち、牛車近くに坐っている四人の武士は、膝塗りの弓を右手に、左膝を立てて対する右膝を大きく開いた「片踵坐」に構えている。おそらく弓術の手練なのだろう。大の男が四人揃ってこのような立て膝に構えていると、いかにも壮麗で、威厳が感じられる。宮廷に仕える人々の佇まいには、その使命に相応しい尊厳が、どの役目の者にも備わっているように見える。
ドラマ「水戸黄門」の決め台詞ではないが、「頭が高い!控えおれ!」と言われたら、とりあえず頭だけは低くして御上に「つくばう」姿勢をとることが、武家社会のなかで普及していたのだとしたら、その坐り方は辻で博奕を打つ庶民の男たち(図28)と何ら変わらない形が定着していたということだろうか。それにしてもこの坐り方(図25、図26)の屈服加減を見ていると、古典落語などでよく揶揄されて下級武士の人望のほどが想像できるようだ。

Chapter Number One: Seiza is Not the Only Proper Way (Part 3)

My Naive Question About Seiza

Currently, we practice the tea procedure of Sekishuu style tea in seiza the same as the other schools. Even when attending a tea meeting organized by the teachers of the area, I have never seen tea done in a position other than seiza. Since a tea procedure can take a long time, often stretching close to an hour, everyone has their feet fall asleep when practicing, so it is even trying to stand that their feet will not move. This author has experienced this himself countless times.
Since the movements the temae already has itself are good, it might be that when participating in a tea seating as a guest, it is rather difficult for the feet one seated on. Occasionally, when I have at times been present in the seat of honour, I have told “dozou ohira ni” and been advised to relax my sitting position. For men, relaxing their position to agura (cross-legged) is not difficult because they wear hakama. But women, wearing kimono, can’t easily relax thier position. Attending a chaji and kaseki meal together, it is not rare to have to sit in seiza for three hours. Because of this, an elderly person doesn’t have such a kind chat as “my feet fell asleep”, but rather the knee joint becomes impaired and people give up on practicing tea are not a few.
As I advanced in my practice, it soon occured to me that I wanted to try and read the books written by the founder. When I perused the one volumn of the “Sekishuu Sanbyaku Kajou” that I received from the oiemoto, the first naive question that rose was about the feeling that one musn’t relax one’s position even enduring any pain in the knees, since wasn’t it that seiza was not the original position for chanoyu?
Doan, who felt the correct form of tatehiza obstructed a corpulent stomache should not be done, relaxed the form and went to a more convenient version of tatehiza. After that, even if one’s feet fall asleep, even if one’s knee joints are impaired, the idea became that “it is proper etiquette to not relax from seiza”. I am afraid that I have to say that the strong feeling in the age of Rikyu and Sekishuu was different.

正坐に対する素朴な疑問

現在、石州流茶道の点前は、他の流派と同じく正座で行われている。地方の先生方の主催する茶席に入ったときにも、正座以外の姿勢で点前が行われるのを見たことはない。茶の点前は永いものになると一時間近くかかるものもあり、手習いの頃は誰もがしびれを切らすもので、立とうと思っても足が動かなくなってしまうようなことは、筆者自身何度も経験している。
点前にはそれなりの動きがあるからまだいい方で、客として茶席に参加するときの方がむしろ足はたいへんかも知れない。たまに上座に押し出されたりしたときに、「どうぞお平に」と座崩すよう勧められることもあるが、男性の場合は袴を穿いているので胡坐に崩すのは雑作ない。しかし女性はキモノなので坐を崩すことは容易にはできない。茶事、懐石の双方を合わせれば、三時間正坐りっぱなしということも珍しくないから、年配の方になると、「足がしびれる」などという生やさしい話ではなくて、後々まで膝の関節に障害が残ってしまい、稽古を断念されてしまう方も少なくない。
稽古が進み、そろそろ流祖の伝書を読んでみたいと思い立ち、お家元から一冊譲り受けて『石州三百箇条』を繙いたときに、膝の痛みに耐えてまで「坐を崩してはならない」という感覚は、本来の茶の湯の姿ではないのではないか、という素朴な疑問がまず浮かんだ。
肥満体のお腹がつっかえて正式な「立て膝」のできなかった道安は、崩した形の「立て膝」で手前を行っていたとされている。それからすると、足がしびれても、膝に障害が残ってでも、「正座を崩さないことが礼儀である」とする考えは、残念ながら利休や石州の時代とはずいぶん感覚がちがうといわなければならない。

Chapter Number One: Seiza is Not the Only Proper Way (Part 1)

Transforming a Japanese Room

Since it came to be that I studied the ways Japanese move our bodies as handed down from old, it seems fate that this author began to study tea ceremony.
Just drinking tea is literally an everyday bread and butter [lit. tea] sort of thing, but has adopted all sorts of Japanese culture in to its sphere, extending its world to include kaiseki cooking, flower arrangement, fine art, incense listening, ceramics, gardening, sukiya style architecture, and so on. When first preparing to study tea ceremony, I studied Japanese culture well and efficiently. Thus was my impure motive as a beginner. Advancing along the road of research when I was first a student at graduate school, happening to have a chance to visit the temple affiliated with the tea master Katagiri Sekishu called Jikoin, the thin tea served while we gazed at the scenery of the wide plain of Nara was exceedingly delicious. Upon explaining that I wanted to study tea ceremony, I received an introduction from the wife of the previous head priest to a teacher in Tokyo who if I wanted to study Sekishu style tea I should definitely visit.
The person I was introduced to was in the nearby residential area of Setagaku in Todoroki Valley, and it being hidden without even a signboard, it had an air that the grand master was protecting this handed down tradition. Also, it didn’t have any spacious Japanese garden or tea house connected to the roji. Looking like a normal house, it merely had a small 6 tatami mat Japanese room with a hearth cut into it.
Sometime in summer, it was custom for the students to gather and practice the kaiseki. We divided the 6 mat room into two with a kekkai (a type of chadougu which is placed to show where a boundary is), made the chosen machiai, and were first treated to sakura tea in which cherry blossoms floated by our sempai who had the duty of being the hosts. Those on mizuya duty took away the kekkai on an organized signal, and then that place was changed into the main seating of the chaji. The six mat room, depending on how the kekkai or furo screen is placed, can be completely changed into a four and a half mat room or even into a two mat machiai. According to the goal of the practice, in short, according to the intimacy of the relationship between the host and guests, we can choose how formal it is.
Such a technique of transforming the scale of the open space at will, for myself who has become used to modern rooms, was at first astonishing. I was shocked. The space there I knew had instantly transformed into a different world. My body quaked at this tiny spectacle.
The location of a person is not defined merely by the walls and doors of the room encircling them all around. There where a person sits, when one or two division are placed in appropriate places, acquires a place which calms the heart. For those who practice tea, since there where the gathered guests and host is a thing at times subtly created, when there is an open space without any tables or chairs, the nature of the “seat” becomes a space where it is possible to create partitions at will.

変貌する和室
日本人が古くから伝え継いてきた「からだの使い方」を研究するようになってから、縁あって筆者は茶道を習いはじめた。
ただお茶を飲むだけの、文字通りの日常茶飯事ではあるけれども、その周辺に広がる世界には、懐石、生け花書画、聞香、陶芸、作庭、数奇屋建築など、日本文化のあらゆる側面が取り込まれている。当初は、茶道をやっておけば日本文化を効率よく学べる、という不純な動機で入門した。研究の道に進みはじめた大学院の学生の頃に、茶人片桐石州にゆかりのある「慈光院」という寺をたまたま訪れた折、奈良平野に連なる借景を眺めながら出された薄茶がことのほか美味しくて、茶道を学びたい旨を伝えたところ、東京で石州流の茶を学ぶのならぜひこの方に、と先代住職の奥様から先生をご紹介いただいた。
紹介された先は等々力渓谷にほど近い世田谷区の住宅街にあって、そこには茶道教室の看板があるわけでもなく、人知れず、お家元がその道を護り伝えているといった風であった。また広々とした日本庭園や茶室につながら露地などもなく、外観は普通の住宅の、六畳一間に炉が切ってあるだけの小さな和室で、石州清水流茶道の奥義が伝習されてきた。
いつからか夏には門弟の方々が集まって、懐石の稽古をするのが恒例となっていた。六畳の和室を結界(茶道具のひとつで、境界を示す置物のこと)で二つに仕切り、見立ての「待合い」がつくられ、亭主役の先輩方から桜の花びらを浮かせた桜湯がまず振舞われる。水屋の準備が整った合図とともに結界が取り払われて、今度はそこが茶事の本席へと変わる。六畳の和室は、結界や風炉先屏風の置き方によって、四畳半の和室にも、二畳の待合いにも様変わりし、稽古の主旨に応じて、つまり主客の交わりの親密さによって、どのような格式にでも見立てることができるのだった。
空間のスケールを自由自在に変質させるこのような技は、近代的な空間に慣れきっていた自分には、まず驚きであったし、衝撃だった。自分がそこに存在している空間が、瞬時に別の世界へと変質してしまう。その小さなスペクタクルに、身が震えるようだった。
人の居場所とは、壁とドアに四方を囲まれた部屋ばかりを意味するのではなくて、そこに人が坐り、適当な位置にひとつ二つ仕切りを置けば、心の落ち着ける居場所が得られる。茶人にとっての『座』のあり方は、そこに集う客と亭主が時々の機微に応じてつくり上げていくもので、椅子やテーブルのない無の空間であればこそ、自由自在な間仕切りが可能となっている。

Chapter Number One: Seiza is Not the Only Proper Way (Part 2)

Tate-hiza of Teamasters

The number one hurdle when one decides to study the procedures of tea, is for everyone one’s feet falling asleep. In deciding to study traditional Japanese ettiquette, because there are many people who think, “It won’t do if I can’t endure seiza” even this modern common sense to prepare to cultivate the bodily ability to be able to do it at least temporarily is safer. However, pursuing the (course of) the history of the ettiquette of ritual tea, it appears that seiza was not always the correct basis. I hope we can have a correct appreciation of this thing.

Sekishuu-ryuu tea ceremony’s founder, a man called Katagiri Sekishuu, was once the shogun’s tea ceremony instructor. In the 5th year of Kanbun (1665), in the age of the 4th shogun, Ietsuna, one the chance of being invited as the tea ceremony instructor to the Shogun’s house, he presented an instruction book about chanoyu. Entitled “Sekishuu Sanbyaku Kajou (300 articles)”, the beginning this book in article 2 was dedicated to an item about the body’s arrangement and posture when making tea called “Mi no Kane (The Standard Position)”.

Not considering (things) from the modern common sense of tea ceremony, the proper way of sitting during chanoyu in those days was in “tate-hiza”: sitting with the the right ankle under the behind on the tatami and the left knee standing up. The tea of Sekishuu was handed down to Kuwayama Souzen from Doan, the eldest son of Sen no Rikyu, and article number three in the “Sanbyaku Kajou” has the next sentence about sitting.

(This is) is my objection about the sitting posture of Doan.

About this one article, according to Seki-shuu School Mito Karou Convention, in “The Teachings of Tanaka Sohaku, Sekishuu Sanbyaku Kajou” that was published, this summed up the explanation:

As for the posture of the temae and also the proper position, rather than doing the temae in a stiff posture that captures a (formal) form, it is better to do the temae in a posture that matches your own body, that is to say, a natural posture.

Because the person called Doan was a person attentive to nutrition, he said that (rather than?) sitting in tatehiza where the stomache presses the knee to the extent it grows fat (we should) sit in the position of tate-hiza with the right foot in tailor fashion to do the temae. Because now as in the past there are all sort of instances where people can’t cannot easily subdue to correct position, especially because (it was) in the instruction book of the shogun’s company, it won’t do if we don’t have the concern that it won’t work to make (someone do) the impossible. In there, even if (we) temporarily decide the proper way of sitting, we can easily realize the thing of being broad-minded concerning sitting in a different way.

第一章
正座が唯一の作法ではない

茶人の立て膝

お茶の点前を学ぼうとするときの第一ハードルは、誰にとっても足がしびれることである。日本の伝統的な作法を学ぼうとすると、「正座に耐えなければならない」と思っている人は多いから、そういう現代的な常識も一応クリアーできるだけの身体能力は養っておいた方が無難ではある。しかし、点茶の作法の歴史を辿っていくと、必ずしも「正座」が正しい基準であったわけではない。そのことも正しく理解しておきたい。

石州流茶道の流祖である片桐石州という人は、将軍家の茶道師範をしていたことがある。寛文五年(一六六五)、四代将軍家綱の時代に将軍家の茶道指南役として召された折に、茶の湯のための指南書を献上する。『石州三百箇条』と題するその伝書の冒頭第二条には、「身のかね(曲尺)」と言って茶を点てるときの身体の配置や姿勢という項目が奉げられている。

現代の茶道の常識からは考えれないことだが、当時の茶の湯での正式な坐り方というのは、右の足首を尻の下に畳み、左の膝を立てて坐る「立膝」だった。石州の茶は、千利休の長男道安から桑山宗仙を経て伝わったものなのだが、『三百箇条』の第三条には「坐」についての次のような文章がある。

居住いに道安私の申し分あり

この一条について、石州流水戸何陋会によって刊行された『田中素白師伝 石州三百箇条』には、

点前の姿勢は、本来の形はあっても、形にとらわれて窮屈な姿勢で点前をするよりも、自分の体に合った姿勢、つまり自然体で点前をすることの方がむしろよいのである。

という解説が加えられている。

道安という人は栄養が行き届いた人で、「立て膝」で坐ると腹が膝につっかえてしまうくらい太っていたらしく、右足を胡坐のようにした「立て膝」の姿勢で点前をしていたという。正しい型に容易には従えない人それぞれの事情があるのは今も昔も同じことのようで、とくに将軍相手の指南書では、無理をさせてはいけない という配慮もしなければならなかったことだろう。そこには坐り方の作法を一応定めながらも、容易に応じて ちがう坐り方をも 柔軟に許容する懐の深さがあったことがわかる。