吉田松陰


Yoshida Shoin A Word Every Day
Inspiring Analects to Encourage the Spirit
by Kawaguchi Masaaki

Preface
Our teacher Yoshida Shoin once wrote, “Disorder is not war, peace is not abundance (of wealth). Lords being lords, vassals being vassals. Father being fathers, children being children. All under heaven is right.” (ref. this book, January 6th) Our teacher, furthermore, finished by continuing “Still yet, is this age a time of peace or is it an generation of disorder? Consider it closely: you should know this.”
So, to understand this saying as an individual person, to build upon this base taught by our teacher Shoin: That is filial piety. In the (book) Mencius T’ang Wan Kung Upper Volume Chapter 4, filial piety is protecting as a person the five ways, specifically, fushi no shin (the affection between parent and child), kunshin no gi (the courtesy between lord and vassal), fuufu no betsu (the distrinction between husband and wife), chouyou no jo (the ranking between the old and young), Houyuu no shin (the fidelity between companions).
In the 60 years after the war, we Japanese have been determined to have a peaceful and “abundant” world, and we have pushed forward into a world of liberty and freedom. The result, with certainty, has carried us to a life of abundance to the degree never seen by history. Also, we have received liberty and freedom. However, with this on one hand, it is the truth that people, when watching the news everyday about our country’s current condition, having the thought that this is unbearable and feeling that something is wrong, are increasingly beginning to earnestly search for some support.
So, what is the primary cause? There is no need to say. I’ve thought about this thing that modern Japanese have. We Japanese, as individual human beings, our values have become strange. In this age, 150 years later, studying Shoin points out frankly the “disorder times” of our country currently and the alarm bells that cry are by no means few. This, now, without reflecting on mine own limited ability, is the reason for undertaking this book.
Our teacher Shoin’s words, even one person can somehow light a lamp in the hearts of many people. As a single person who has studied the teacher, it is the wish from the bottom of my heart to resusitatate a wholesome nation of Japan.
Finally, upon writing this book, I would like to dedicate gratitude to President Katsuo Hideaki of Chichi Publishing, Sir Ookoshi Masahiro who kindly oversaw this project personally, and the many other people from whom I gratefully received guidance and cooperation. Among these, I especially have no words of gratitude enough for Sugihara Hiroshi, a student from when I was at the Yamaguchi Prefectural Ubeshi High School, currently the Superintendent of Educational Guidance at the Yamaguchi Prefecture Board of Education. In truth, I was freshly moved that while having a busy job, you made time even during your days off to give me guidance. That I could again receive instruction at the end of the teaching career fills this ungraceful author with joy.
Written November First, the Eighteenth Year of Heisei
The University of Human Enviroments Kawaguchi Masaaki

吉田松陰一日一言
魂を鼓舞する感奮語録
川口雅昭

はしがき
吉田松陰先生に、「乱は兵戦にも非ず、平は豊饒にも非ず、君君たり臣臣たり、父父たり子子たり、天下平かなり」(本書【正月六日】参照)という名辞がある。先生は更に、「なお、今の時代は平穏な時であるか、それともらん世であるか。よく考えて、これを知るべきである」と続けて、結んでおられる。
さて、この名辞も含め、一人の人間として、松陰先生の基底をなすもの、それは「五倫」である。【五倫】とは、『孟子』勝文公上第四章にある、人として守るべき五つの道のことで、具体的には、父子の新(父と子の間の親愛)、君臣の儀(君と臣の間の礼儀)、夫婦の別(夫婦の間の区別)、長幼の序(長幼の間の順序)、朋友の信(親友の間の信義)をいう。
戦後六十余年、私ども日本人はひたすら平和な、「豊饒」なる世界、「自由・平等」なる世界を目
指し突き進んできた。その結果、確かに、これまでの人数史上でも数をみないほどの豊かな生活を営み、また、自由・平等を享受してきた。しかし、その一方で、日々報道される我が国の現状に対し、やりきれない思いを抱き、「何かがまちがっている」と感じ、対応を真剣に模索し始めた人が増えていることも事実であろう。
では、その主因は何か。いうまでもない。私は、現在の日本人そのものにあると考えている。私ども日本人の、一人の人間としての価値観がおかしいのである。そんな時、百五十年という時間を超えて、私どもに「警鐘」を鳴らし、現在の我が国が「乱世」にあることを端的に指摘されている松陰先生に学ぶことは、決して少なくない。これが、この度、己れの浅学非才をも顧みず、本書の執筆をお引き受けした理由である。
松陰先生の名辞が、一人でも多くの人の心に、何らかの「灯」をともし、健全な日本国が再生されること、先生に学んできた者の一人として、衷心よりの願いである。
最後に、本書執筆にあたり、致知出版社の藤尾秀昭社長、直接担当してくださった大越昌宏氏、その他多くの御指導、御協力をいただいた方々に、からお礼申し上げる。その中でも、とりわけ、山口県立宇部高等学校時代の教え子で、現山口県教育庁航行教育課指導主事杉原宏之君には、御礼の言葉もない。多忙な職にありながら、せっかくの休日を割いて「指導」してくれた彼の誠実さに改めて感動したし、教職の末度を汚す者の喜びを改めて教えてもらった。
平成十八年十一月念一日記
人間環境大学 川口雅昭

The Only Counterplan (Part 2)

O, since the national prestiage of Japan has not risen, it was a very old thing. Once, the Emperor’s words were listened to, and then suddenly, righteousness was realized and there were no mistakes during discussions. Truely, when it was so, it was wonderful. Is it not that we, rough retainers of the Emperor, cannot follow those august words? Still more, the condition today, when America threatens us through military might, is that the bakafu is merely frightened, being good for it’s own sake, thinking not of the nation of Japan. Still more, is it not that the samurai and townsfolk can overlooking this current situation? Consider that America has now sent a consul to Japan, freely on the streets and in the cities. Sending the consul skillfully tempts our country’s people. Also, consider the matters of constructing a church of heaven, a supplementary payment for our country’s religion, constructing a trading firm, and taxing the Japanese for the employees. Freely manipulating the country, tempting the townsfolks in this way is a completely unforgivable thing.
The foreigners are making such schemes. Consider that at this, the bakafu’s sole plan is only upholding the Treaty of Peace and Amnity. Is it not said a general grand plan is being embraced? Or else is it not merely avoiding war for the moment? Refrain from war, protect the peace. This is the consideration of the Emporer. So if there was consultation of how to solve this situation from the Bakafu and the matter of such handing it down to our Province’s public, our lords should please answer, “We must not disobey the Emporer’s decrees. We should drive away America.” This has come to an end. The bakafu probably gives forth layers of questions. In short, they say, “Of course, it would never do to not comply with the Emporer’s orders, however because previously we made a the treaty, how would it be good if we broke it?” The answer of our lords that oppose this already go without saying.

ああ、日本の国威があがらなくなってから、随分と久しいものです。ひとたび天皇がお言葉をかけられるならば、たちまちのうちに、正義にかなった議論がわき起ることは間違いありません。まことにそうなれば素晴らしいことです。およそ天皇の臣下である私達が、そのお言葉に従うことが出来ないというとがあるでしょうか。ましてアメリカが武力によって脅嚇している今日、幕府はただ怖れて、いいなりになり、日本の国というものを考えていない有様なのです。およそ武士や市民たちが、この事態をそのまま見過すことが出来るものでしょうか。今アメリカは日本に領事を置き、通市を自由にやろうと考えています。領事を置くのは、わが国の人人をうまく誘いに乗せようとしているのです。また天主堂(教会)を建てて、わが国の宗教を追い払い、商館を建て日本人を使用人に庸うことを考えています。自由に国をあやつり、人民を誘いに乗せようとするやり方には、まったく目に余るものがあります。
外国人はこのような計画を立てています。ところが幕府は、ただ和親条約を結ぶことだけを唯一の策と考えているのです。これでいったい雄大な構想を抱いているといえるでしょうか。それともただ戦争をさけたい一心だけなのでしょうか。戦争を慎んで和平を結ぶ、これが天皇のお考えなのです。だから幕府から事態の解決案の下間が わが藩公にくだるようなことが あれば、わが君は「天皇の命令には叛くべからず。アメリカは追い払うべし」とお答えなさって下さい。それに尽きます。幕府はかさねて質問を発するはずです。 つまり「天皇の命令はもちろん聞き入れなければならないが、しかしすでにアメリカと条約を結んでしまっているので、どのようにいってそれを破棄すればよいのか」と。これに対するわが君のお答えは、もはやいうまでもないことです。

The Only Counterplan (Part 1)
Followed by the Conclusion
Mid-April
by Yoshida Shoin (1858)

I respectfully offer this. In the first year of Kouka (1844), when the envoy of Holland turned up in Japan, we gave warning about the unusal event of the said arrival of black ships on this trip. Maybe for that sake, people boisterously made various war preparations. In that time, the situation was that people who advocated peace were few, and people who advocated in the direction of war were many. Ten years after that, it resulted that America, Russia, England, France and others turned up in Japan one after another. Above the others, the most worrying one for Japan was the arrival of America’s ship. Because of this, people who argued about war preparations increasingly used their voices loudly, but instead, many of the people who advocated war before converted to advocating peace. The people who advocated peace became many, and the people who advocated war became few.

The so called people who advocate for war are the closed-country (sakoku) ideologists. The people who advocate for peace are open-country-and-commerce ideologists. As for the matter of which policy we should take as a nation, if we consider (how) the various surrounding foreign countries are ruled thereafter from a splendid idea, there is no route except to open the country to commerce, I would think. If we chose the sakoku policy, and if we await the matter of the coming attack of a foreign enemy, our strength will weaken and our power will cower. There would be no other route except for the complete destruction of Japan. When Empress Jingu subjugated Korea, a paid sum of tribute to Japan, rather than China, was determined, a government was established, and we did commerce. When Tokugawa Ieyasu became seiitai-shogun, of course, (other countries) were free to sail, and conduct trade too. After that, a peaceful age continued for a long time. For that reason, the quibbling government officials were able to somehow in peace govern society. Thereupon those thoughts rising, (I remember that)in the 13th year of Kan’ei (1636), the arrival of ships as well as free foreign trade were prohibited. However, an open country and commerce became the foundation of the idea of a splendid nation, and this is the principle that remains transmitted from a long time ago. Sakoku is a quibbling method and in the following age, there were many evil practices.

However, this is quite a distressing problem: Now people who advocate opening the country with commerce do not embrace an entirely splendid idea. Rather they are avoiding war because they are faint-hearted. Therefore, I say their idea is inferior to people who advocated sakoku, unafraid of war. Therefore, the people who advocate peace really are afraid of it coming to war, and in their inner hearts is a feeling of shame. Whereupon the minute that I hear momentarily by chance advocacy for opening the country to commerce, as it is an excuse, the end result is I get rid of that feeling of shame. Also, rejecting peace, if the people who advocate war are attacked, my advocacy of Sonno Joi stumbles down. This point is a distressing thing.

対策一道 附論一則 四月中旬

謹んで申しあげます。弘化元年(一八四四)オランダの国使が日本にやって来た時、このたびの黒船来航という異変について忠告をいたしました。そのためか人々はいろいろと兵備のことをやかましくいうようになったのです。その時は和平を主張する者は少なく、戦争を主張する者の方が多い状態でした。それより十年の後、アメリカ、ロシア、イギリス、フランス、などが次ぎ次ぎと日本にやって来るにいたりました。なかでも日本にとって一番心配なのはアメリカの来航でした。兵備について議論する者は、これによってますます声を大にするようになりましたが、かえって前に戦争を主張していた者達は、多く和平論者に転向しました。和平論者が多くなり、主戦論者は少なくなったのです。

戦争を主張する者はいわゆる鎖国主義者であり、和平を主張する者は、開国通商主義者なのです。国家としてとるべき方針はいずれかということが、雄大な構想のもとに周囲の諸外国を支配していこうと 考えるならば、開国通商以外に道はないと思われます。もし鎖国政策をとり、ただ外敵の襲って来るのを待ちうけるということになれば、勢力も弱まり、力も畏縮し、日本は亡び去る以外に道はないでしょう。神功皇后が三韓を征服された時も、韓より日本への貢納の額を定め、官府を設置され、通商が行なわれていました。徳川家康が征夷大将軍になった時も、もちろん航海は自由に行なわれ、通商も行なっていました。その後は平和な時代が打ち続き、そのため一時のがれの役人達も、なんとか無事に世の中を治めることが出来たのです。それで思いあがり、寛永十三年(一六三六)、航海および貿易の自由を、すべて禁止してしまいました。しかし開国通商は、雄大な国家構想の基礎になるものであり、これは昔から伝わる遺法なのです。鎖国は一時のがれの方法であり、次の時代にとって弊害の多いものです。

しかしこれは、なかなか困難な問題で、今開国通商を主張している者が、必ずしも雄大な構想を抱いているわけではありません。むしろ戦争を回避しようという弱気からなのです。だからそれは戦争を恐れず鎖国を主張するものより劣っているといえます。だから、和平を主張する者は、本当は戦争になるのを恐れているのであって、内心では恥かしい気持でいるのです。ところがひとたび私の開国通商の主張を耳にするや、それを口実として、恥じる気持をなくす始末です。また和平を拒否して、戦争を主張する者を攻撃すれば、私の尊皇攘夷の主張はつまずいてしまうことになります。この点が困難なのです。