南方録


2. The Yin and Yang of a Chakai

Rikyu said that in a sukiya tea room, the concept behind the first and second seating is that the first half is yin and the second half is yang, and that is an important rule. During the first seating, a scroll is in the alcove, the strength of the kettle’s fire is weak, blinds are in the window. Various things give the seating the feeling of yin. Both the host and guests, have that heart. During the second seating, flowers are arranged, the kettle is boiling, the blinds are removed, and everything has the feeling of yang. Although this is an important rule, this can be altered at the tea master’s discretion, depending on clear or cloudy weather, the temperature and humidity. For example, when the weather is gloomy, one can remove the blinds, open the skylight, or have flowers arranged, even during the first seating. However, we must not think in the least that it is now yang. Since of most importance is the condition of the fire, it is from that we should say yin or yang. And in such times, the second seating is never considered yin. We should base it upon the aforementioned condition of the fire.

There are two elements (ie. yin and yang) between Heaven and Earth. During the hot Spring and Summer seasons, there are rather cold days, and during the cold Autumn and Winter seasons, there are warm days. Nevertheless, we do not say Autumn is Spring, nor do we say Winter is Summer, despite the variations within one season. So Rikyu said. Dairin and Shourei were at that seating and hear him say it too. Indeed, they admired him, saying he possessed a state of intuitive enlightenment and his tea was of great wisdom.

二茶会の陰と陽。

数奇屋ニテ、初座・後座ノ趣向ノコト、休云、初ハ陰、後ハ陽、コレ大法也、座ニ床ハカケ物、釜モ火アイ衰ヘ、窓ニ簾ヲカケ、ヲノヽヽ一座陰ノ体ナリ、主客トモニ其心アリ、後座ハ花ヲイケ、釜モワキタチ、簾ハヅシナド、ミナ陽ノ体ナリ、如(レ)此大法ナレドモ、天気ノ晴クモリ、寒温暑湿ニシタカイテ変体ヲスルコト、茶人ノ料簡ニアリ、タトヘバ欝々シキ天気ナドノ時、初座簾ヲハヅシ、ツキ上ゲヲアゲ、花ヲイケナドスルコトアリ、サレドモ一向二陽トハ心得ベカラス、火アイヲ似て第一トスルユヘ、如(レ)此ノ体ヲ陰陽ト云ベシ、此時トテモ後座ヲ陰ニスルト云コトハナシ、右火アヒニテ勘弁スベシ、天地ノ間ニ気モ、春夏ノ温暑ノ時モフト寒冷ノコトアリ、秋冬ノ冷寒ノ時モフトアタ、カナル日アリ、サレドトテ春ヲ秋トモ云ハズ、夏ヲ冬トモ云ザレガゴトシ、一季ノ内ノ変ナレバナリ、能々分別スベキヨシノ玉ヒシニ、大林、笑嶺モ一座ニテ聞玉ヒ、ゲニヽヽ教外別伝ノ地位、大悟ノ茶ト云ベシト感心アリシナリ、

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I say this again, the depth of chanoyu is in soan style. The formal shoin and daisu style tea is a worldly style with strictly arranged manners. Although the small thatched room and the feel of the garden path try to be based in orthodox kane, in the end, they are different from the kane. They forget the techinique and return to the wordly style with a tasteless spirituality. Speaking of this, those chajin who are in thier prime of life or with much free time do not know things they should know, especially spiriturality. As for not being scrupulous about the treatment of utensils, that should be considered inappropriate. In reality, techinique and principle are not seperate things. If you practice the principles truly, then you will be practicing the heart. If you practice the heart truly, then you will be practicing the technique. Even though the technique might be done well, if the heart is yet lacking, then the technique will also be lacking in refinement. Even though the heart might be accomplished, if the technique is lacking, then the heart is not yet fully refined. This is a level that Buddhism can deeply understand as well, it is said.

カヘスゞゝ茶ノ湯ノ深味ハ草菴ニアリ、真ノ書院台子ハ各式法儀ノ厳重ヲトゝノヘ、世間法ナリ、草ノ小座敷、露地ノ一風ハ、本式ノカネヲモトゝスルトイヘドモ、終ニカネヲハナレ、ワザヲ忘レ、心味ノ無味ニ帰スル出世間法ナリ、カクイヘバトテ、壮年又ハイトマアル茶人、心味ダテヲシテ、知ルベキコトヲ知ズ、取アツカイフツゝカニテハ 不相応ノコトナルベシ、実ハ事ト理ト別々ニアラズ、事熟スレバ心熟シ、心熟スレバワザ熟ス、ワザハ能スレドモ心イマダ至ラズト云ハ、ワザモイマタ妙処ニ至ラザレユヘ也、
心ハ熟シタレドモワザ至ズト云モ、心イマタ妙ニ入ザレユヘ也、
コレ仏ノ道ニモフカク了会ノ一段ト云ゝ、

However, how one learns should differ according to the person. There were ancients who mastered writing exquisite informal characters, semiformal characters, and kana characters. They were so skilled in writin exquisite informal, semiformal, and kana characters, that they could, although untrained, discern the true nature of the charaters. Their inner meaning is the same, no matter what point one started learning: starting with the formal characters, the informal characters, the semiformal characters, or starting from the kana. Where one enters from should follow the disposition of the person. Thus, the elderly and the secular should most certainly only begin learning from the formal. After he has finished tempering his mastery of the art of the shoin daisu, then he should begin to intently study Soan style tea. The meaning of soan style tea cannot be attained in one lifetime.Those who teach should well consider this. Just as the saints pray for all people, respond to the large or small workings (of a person’s heart) and suddenly, gently there will be a beckoning path. Rather than trying to understand the handling of all the various utensils and so on, it is a mistake to fuss over these things.

Even merely a host, merely a guest on the soan path can learn all the important principles from start to end. With utensils too, he can decide on one or two, collecting those appropiate for his own possession after discussing it with his teacher. Those elderly or secular can remember how to place utensils, align the kane, and handle utensils entirely. On top of this, if you deeply comprehend the true heart (of tea), your studies will advance and soon it will be Tea. This should be different from how one studies the shoin style.

サレドモ人々ニ依テ修業カナルベシ、古人草文字ノ妙ヲ得、行文字ノ妙ヲ得、カナ文字ノ妙ヲ得タルアリ、草・行・カナモ妙処ヲ得ルホドノ人ハ、タトヒ不得手ニテモ、真字ノ本性ヲワキマユルホドニハアルコトナリ、真ヨリ入、草ヨリ入、行ヨリ入、カナヨリ入ル、其入ル所カハレトモ奥儀ハ同一ナリ、其入所ハ人々ノ生質ニシタガフベキ也、或ハ老人・世務ノ人、カナラズ真ヨリトノミ心得、書院台子ノコトワザ一々手熟煆煉シ畢テ後、草菴ヲ修業スベシトヒタスラニ取カカリテハ、一生ニ草菴ノ風味ニ至ルコトナシ、師タル人能料簡アルベキコト也、仏ノ衆生ヲ度シ玉フゴトク、大乗ノ機、小乗ノ機ニ応ジテ、頓ト漸トノ引道アルガゴトシ、諸具ノアシライナド、コトゞゝク知ラントスルユヘ、却テ物ニ依テヒガコトヲスルナリ、只草菴露地ノ主ニテモ客ニテモ、始終ノ大法ヲ一通リ習ヲボヘ、道具モ一具、二具ヲキハメ、我所持ノシカルベキ道具、師ニ相談シテ組合セ、置方・カネ合・取アツカイ一通リヲ覚ルコトハ、老人・世務ノ人モナルコトナリ、其上ニ本心ノ会得ヲ深切ニスレバ、修業ノハカ行テ、間モナク茶ニナルナリ、此修業書院方トハカハル分別アルベシ

For example, if one is versed in writing formal characters, however freely one might mangle them when writing semi-formally or informally, their true nature is not changed. But if one has only learned the informal kana, the strokes are written differently, and places where the character’s true nature is lost are many. First and formost, the ability to write characters formally should be tempered.

タトヘバ真ノ文字ヲ知テ、行草ニ至レバ、イカホド自由ニクヅシヤツシテモ本性タガハズ、草カナバカリ習テ筆画チガヒ、本性ヲウシナフコト多シ、第一真字煆煉アルベキナリ、

This is a bit from the Sumibiki (Crossed-out) chapter of the Nampouroku (The Southern Record) on my favourite subject: kanewari!^_^

1. What are kanewari?
From the Shoin-style daisu to Soan-style tea, the number of kanewari has already been decided. Since nobody knows how it was decided which ruler to originally rely upon, it is quite a bother.
There is an approximate measure based on the order of heaven and earth. Adding doyo to the four seasons makes five. Adding the center to the four directions makes five. The day is divided into five from the hour of the dragon to the hour of the monkey. The night is divided into five hours. Yin and yang are each explained by five elements. A person, too, is divided into five body parts. Thus we have a ruler for establishing five kane from things such as these. There is no difference between large and small kane. There are five yang kane. Yang is what expresses the shape (katachi). The space between these five kane are six yin kane. Formally, we use the five yang kane. We don’t usually use the six kane. In Soan-style chanoyu, there are circumstances under which the yin and yang are used together, which is said to be based upon the formal daisu and formal shoin-style tea. This is based on the circumstances under which both yin and yang are used together with the shoin-style daisu. If one doesn’t understand what circumstances, mistakes will occur without a doubt. If one investigates the foundations of kane intimatly, one can use them freely however one likes, it is said.

一曲尺割とは何か。
書院・台子・草庵ニ至ルマテ、カネワリノ数ヲ定ルコト、根本何ノカネニ本ジキテ極メタルコトヲ人皆シラザルガユヘニ、事ニ依テ迷惑スルナリ、凡天地順行ノカネアリ、四季ニ土用ヲ加ヘテ節ヲ五つニタテ、四方ニ中央ヲ加ヘテ五ツヲ立、一日ヲ辰ヨリ申ノ五時ニワカチ、夜ヲ五更ニワカツ、陰陽五気ニアラワレテ、人モ五ノ体ヲワクル等ノモトヅキニテ五ツガネヲ定規トシテ、大モ小モ此カネ違フコトナシ、五ハ陽数ナリ、形ニアラハル、モノハ陽ナリ、此五ツガネノ間々六ヲ、陰ノカネトス、本式ニハ陽ノ五ツヲ用テ、六ハ常ニ不(レ)用、草庵ノ茶ノ湯ハ、台子本式・書院ノ格式ヲ本トスルトイヘトモ、陰陽トモニ用ル子細アリ、書院台子ニモ陰陽トモニ用ル子細ニモトツキテノコトナリ、其子細ヲ絵得セザレハ必相違スルコトナリ、ネンゴロニ根源ヲキハメヌレハ、イカヤウニモ自由ナルコトト云ゝ