Date Masamune (Vol. 3)
Over 60 New Year’s dishes!
Generals of the Warring States period also ate New Year’s soups and crusine. This time we recreate the New Year’s meal of the lord of Sendai Province, Date Masamune. With what kinds of food did Masamune, who is said to have had a deep knowledge of cooking, welcome the New Year?

Picture Caption: Date Masamune’s New Year’s Soup and Cruisine
The closer tray holds ozouni soup and unrefined sake. The farther tray holds 6 New Year’s dishes. According to historical records, Masamune’s New Year’s meal had over 60 dishes with many various ingredients and cooking methods. It was a menu festive to the eye and very extravagent. This time, we recreate one part of that meal.

Menu: Ozouni soup, boiled abalone, dried sardines, red and white kamaboko, herring roe, boiled burdock
Ingredients: Tofu, mochi, taro, giant radish, burdock, abalone, greens, sea cucumber, herring, rape stems, anchovy, kamaboko, herring roe

Zouni soup was originally a samurai’s new year’s crusine.
The custom of zouni started in the Muromachi period and had diffused to nearly the entire country as New Year’s crusine by the Sengoku period. Welcoming the Spirit of the Year on New Year’s, the energy of the spirit could be received through eating it as zouni while offering the local harvest of the sea and mountain. Originally, zouni (lit. various things-boiled) was called houzou (lit. boiled-various things). “Hou” means “to boil”. It probably came to be called that as it was a dish made of various ingredients like mochi, vegetables, and seafood.
Well, the zouni recreated this time is the one of the Lord of Sendai Province, Date Masamune. It has 8 ingredients of abalone, herring, sea cucumber, giant radish, burdock, tofu, black beans, and rape stems. The mochi is square mochi. This recipe is preserved in a document called the “Kimura Uemon Memoranda (A Record of the Words and Deeds of Date Masamune)” which was recorded by a page during the last years of Masamune’s life.
The “Cooking Vocabulary” which was published in the 20th year of Kan`ei (1643), roughly the same period as the death of Masamune (1636), also has a method for making zouni. It says to “make it with the lees of miso. Add in mochi, tofu, potato, giant radish, sea slug, abalone, flat bonito, and greens,” and resembles the zouni made by Masamune.
What was originally crusine of warrior society, zouni widely diffused to the common people in the Edo period. The “Morisada Mankou” which comments of the customs of common people of the Edo period also talks about zouni. It says that the zouni of Osaka was made with round mochi and miso and used taro corm, tofu, white radish, and abalone. In Edo, it was made with a square mochi and a clear soup and used spinach and bonito. Already in the Edo period, there were local varieties of zouni.

Recipe: Zouni
Ingredients: tofu, mochi, taro, white radish, abalone, greens
Directions: Boil the ingredients in a stock made of goby fish and bonito. Add the ingredients in order of the taro, white radish, abalone, tofu, green, and grilled mochi. (As you like, it is fine to add in sea cucumber, herring, and rape stem.)

戦国武将たちも正月には雑煮やおせち料理を食べていた。今回再現したのは、仙台藩主・伊達政宗の正月料理。料理に深い造詣があったと伝えられる政宗はどんあ『武士のメシ』で新年を迎えていたのだろうか。
正月料理は60品以上!
伊達政宗の御雑煮とおせち料理
手前の膳は、御雑煮とにごり酒。奥の膳には、おせち料理を6品。文献によれば、正宗の正月料理は60品目を超えて、食材も調理方法も多彩で、見た目も華やかで、贅を尽した献立てだったようだ。今回はそのうちの一部を再現した
お献立
御雑煮、煮アワビ、田作り、紅白かまぼこ、数の子、ごぼうの煮物
食材
豆腐、餅、里芋、大根、ごぼう、アワビ、青菜、ナマコ、ニシン、菜の茎、かたくち鰯、かまぼこ、数の子
雑煮はもともと武士の正月料理だった
雑煮の風習が始まるのは室町時代で、戦国時代には正月料理としてほぼ全国に普及していた。正月に歳神さまを迎えて、地元の海や山の幸を供えつつ、雑煮として共食することによって、神のエネルギーを頂戴するためだ。もともと雑煮は「烹雑」と呼ばれ、「烹」は「煮る」という意。餅や野菜、海産物など雑多な食材を煮て食べることから、そう名付けられたのだろう。
さて今回再現した雑煮は、仙台藩主・伊達政宗のものである。食材はアワビ、ニシン、ナマコ、大根、ごぼう、豆腐、黒豆、菜の茎の8品。餅は角餅である。晩年の正宗が語った話を小姓が書き留めた『木村宇右衛門覚書(伊達政宗言行録)』という資料に残されていたレシピだ。
正宗が亡くなった年(1636年)とほぼ同時代の寛永20年(1643)に出た『料理物語』にも雑煮の作り方が出ている。「味噌かすましで作る。餅、豆腐、芋、大根、いりこ、あわび、平かつお、くきたら(青菜)などをいれる」とあり、正宗の雑煮と似た作りになっている。
元来は武家社会の料理であった雑煮が、一般に広く普及するのは江戸時代に入ってから。江戸時代の庶民の風俗を解説した『守貞謾稿』にも雑煮の記述がある。大阪の雑煮は丸餅味噌仕立てで、小芋、豆腐、大根、アワビを用い、江戸ではは切り餅すまし汁で、小松菜とカツオ節を用いている、とある。江戸時代からすでに雑煮には地域色があったのだ。
レシピ
雑煮
材料
豆腐、餅、里芋、大根、アワビ、青菜
作り方
ハゼとカツオの合わせ出し汁で具材を煮る
煮る順番は、里芋、大根、アワビ、豆腐、青菜、焼きいた餅(好みでナマコ、ニシン、菜の茎を入れてもよい)

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