From Tanko Magazine, Sep. 2011
Scrolls for the Tea Room Q&A
Please teach us about “Ba So Gan Getsu”
Shogen Junior College Research Professor Shuugaku Chisaka

The most formost amoung the many students of Baso Douitsu Zenshi were called the three great teachers: Hyakujou Enkai, Seidou Chizou, and Nansen Fugan. This is a story about when these three people accompanied the teacher Baso Douitsu Zenshi to veiw the moon that is called “Gan Getsu (Playful Moon)”.
I dare say that that night’s moon was more splendid than any other. It’s refinement was deep, so the teacher Baso challenged his three students. He said, “Truely, this is a splendid moon. Surely, at such a time as this, you can explain the teachings of Buddhism, you can perceive frankly the teachings at this moment.”
Thereupon, Seidou Chizou first answered, “Masayoshi kuyou (Truely, holding a memorial is good/ Truely holding a memorial for the Buddha is exactly right. Here, when even feasting, it is also exceptional. Isn’t that so?)” Then, Hyakujou Enkai responded, “Masayoshi shugyou (Truely, pursuing learning is good/ especially on this night of the full moon, this night is ideal for night meditation. Isn’t that so?)” However, only Nansen Fugan did hotsushuu–that is–brushed at his sleeves, did not give forth even a word, and went out.
Connecting with the three different point of veiws, it is said that the teachings of Baso are evaluated as “Putting the scriptures in the treasury”, “Zen is returning to the ocean”, and “Only Fugan alone passed into the transcendental world.” In other words, the scriptures are what is entrusted to Chizou and zazen is what is entrusted to Enkai. Only Fugan alone was praised as passing far over the other two’s positions. The reason being that Nansen’s way of answering was most liked by Baso, but having spoken first in such a way, Hyakujou Enkai who understood the opportunity the most was classified together Seidou Chizou and Nansen Fugan, and they are treated as the three great teachers of Baso’s disciples.
From the start, the man called Baso Douitsu Zenji was a man standing in the dharmic lineage of “The Sixth Patriarch Enou; The Seventh Patriarch Nangaku Ejou; The Eigth Patriarch Baso Douitsu.” The zen monk who represented and passed down to posterity the teachings of this Baso Douitsu was Hyakujou Enkai. After his death, Hyakujou made the regulations called “Hyakujou Shingi”, but regrettably it has not been perserved to this day. In the former age, Touyou Tokki who lived at Mt. Hyakujou complied the “Chokushu Hyakujou Shingi” that accepted the imperial decree of that time’s emperor Juntei. In Zen, which says (the saying) “dignity is buddhism, etiquette is the tenets”, the sacred ceasless pursuit of learning (gyouji) of buddhism is expressed in the four kinds of dignity in walking, standing, sitting, and lying. In Japan, this Shingi, as well as Zen temples, gave a great influence to tea ceremony which has a deep connection with Zen. And also the etiquette in the tea room and so on seems to have a lot of influence from the Shingi. There is the feeling of the greatness of Hyakujou Zenshi’s influence.

茶席の掛物Q&A
「馬祖翫月」についてご教示ください
正眼短期大学特任教授 千坂秀學 ちさかしゅうがく

馬祖道一禅師にはお弟子が多くいる中で、特に傑出した場祖門下の三大師(士)と称せられるのは、百丈懐海・西堂知蔵・南泉普願です。その三人が、師の馬祖道一禅師のお伴をして、”翫月”いわゆる月見をしていた時のことです。
おそらくその夜の月はことのほかずばらしい、趣き深い月であったので、師の馬祖は三人の弟子に対して、「まことにすばらしい月である。まさにこういう時、お前たちは仏法をどう説明するか、ずばり即今をどう捉えるか」とおっしゃいました。
すると、西堂知蔵がまず「正好供養(正に供養するに好し/まさに仏に供養するのがぴったりでございます。ここでご馳走でもあればまた格別でしょうね)」と答え、ついで百丈懐海が、「正好修行(正に修行するに好し/この満月の一夜こそ、夜坐するにはもってこいの夜でございますね。)」と応じました。しかし南泉普願だけは、払袖、つまり袖を払って、一語も発さずに出て行ってしまったのです。
三者三様の見解に接して、馬大師は「経は蔵に入り」「禅は海に帰す」「唯だ普願のみありて独り物外に超ゆ」と評したといいます。つまり、経典(経義)は智蔵のものであるし、坐禅は懐海のものとしてまかせられる。ただ普願だけは二人の境地をずっととび超えている、とたたえられたのです。南泉の答え方が最も馬祖の気に入ったわけですが、先にも申しましたように、最も大機を領得した百丈懐海に、南泉普願、西堂知蔵を併称して、馬祖門下の三人大師とするのであります。
そもそも、馬祖道一禅師というかたは、
六祖慧能ー七祖南嶽懐譲ー八祖馬祖道一
という法脈に連なる方で、その馬祖道一門下を後世にわたって代表する禅者が、百丈懐海なのであります。百丈はのちに「百丈清規」という規則を作りますが、惜しくも今は伝えられていません。元の時代に、百丈山に住した東陽徳輝が時の天皇順帝の勅を受けて「勅修百丈清規」を編纂し、「清規」の集大成がなされたのであります。禅教では、威儀即仏法、作法即宗旨といって、その行住坐臥の四威儀の中から仏法の尊い行持があらわれるとします。この清規は、禅林のみならず、日本においては、禅と深く関係のある茶道に大きな影響を与えて、茶席における作法などにも清規によるものが多く見られ、百丈禅師の影響の大きさが感じられます。

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